IMJ Health : February 2016

Anemia among Adolescent Girls and its socio-demographic Associates

Surgical Site Infection After Total Knee Arthroplasty : A Descriptive Study

Abstract Joint replacement operations which are applied to reduce the pain and increase the movement capacity are among the surgical procedures that are used mostly nowadays. Even though a dramatic recovery is seen in the life of the patient after total knee prosthesis, possible prosthesis infection increases cost and causes high morbidity. This study was conducted with the aim to determine rates of surgical site infection after performing primer total knee prothesis operation in our clinic. Furthermore, it has been intended to understand risk factors which may cause infection and then take precautions. This study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2013, 252 knees underwent primary total knee arthroplasty operations. Among these patients infection rates, relationship to risk factors and infection treatments were analysed. It was observed that iIn 252 knees, 10 (4%) superficial infections were found, debridement and antibiotics were applied to 3 knees out of 10 and only antibiotic treatment was applied to the rest 7 knees. Deep infection was detected in 4 knees (1,6%) out of 252. Acute deep infection in 1 knee and recovery was provided with debridement and intravenous antibiotics treatment. Late deep infection was not detected in any of patients. Delayed deep infection was detected in 3 (1,1%) of these knees though. Among all risk factors only increased body mass index showed increased superficial wound infection rate. It can be concluded that among the factors like rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, age, gender, body mass index, just body mass index has an impact on superficial infection rate. Our infection rates were comparable to rates mentioned in universal literature for primary total knee replacement operations.

Key words: Joint replacement, Surgical site Infection, Arthroplasty

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Integration of CAD/CAM technology in Global Dental Prosthetic treatment: A Case Report

Abstract— This case report describes how CAD CAM technology can be used in a complex dental prosthetic treatment. The patient was a 62 years-old man with loss of the vertical dimension resulting in chronic pain in his temporo-mandibular articulations. All the fixed prosthetic elements were created using CAD/CAM technology using the 3Shape™Trios® system and vitro-ceramic blocs (IPS E.max CAD, IvoclarVivadent®) and (IPS Empress LT CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent®). The diagnostic set-up and wax-up served as references for the CAD/CAM system. The two-implant bridge and the mandibular removable prosthesis were produced using a conventional technique. At the end of the treatment, the patient reported good functional comfort with no pain.

Key words: CAD/CAM, Global Prosthetic Rehabilitation

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Comparison of Neurocognition and Behavioral in Alcohol with Placebo group

Abstract Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that their consumption can cause some damage to the body, mainly in the central nervous system, also it is possible observed changes in the social behavior of the individual when ingested in large amounts.

In addition, a placebo effect is based on the total of similar beneficial effects to health regarding physiological – psychological active substance. With regard to this issue, have been conducted to observe the behavior of volunteers where it is used a psychoactive substance such as coffe, marijuana or drugs in some volunteer groups compared to a group that ingested a placebo (inert substance).

In this study, it was observed the behavior of two groups of young volunteers aged college to which were given drinks alcoholics beverages and drinks with placebo (group A and B, respectively), where alcoholics beverages and placebo were smell similar and taste.

Previously it determined that these volunteers had no alcohol dependence. Also before giving the drinks, their levels of anxiety and depression were assessed by means of psychological testing; volunteers also underwent neurocognitive testing, neuromotor before and it then give them drinks with alcohol or placebo.

We observed in this study that the placebo effect was can be as strong as if it had ingested the psychoactive substance, In like manner, we perceived that mood at the studie moment have a significantly influence, because the psychoactive substance effect or stimulating feeling are improved even when they to believe has been drinking alcohol

Key words: Alcohol, Anxiety, Neurocognition, Placebo

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Comparison of Intravaginal Misoprostol Tablet (Prostaglandin E1) and Intracervical Dinoprostone (Prostaglandin E2) Gel in Induction of Labour

Abstract Cervical ripening is an essential factor for initiation of normal labour for vaginal delivery. Prior to onset of spontaneous labour the cervix undergoes a gradual process of ripening. But in certain cases it does not occur spontaneously at term and sometimes induction of labour is required. Then cervical ripening means high bishop score in essential for successful induction of labour. This comparative study was conducted at Bikaner to compare induction of labour by vaginal prostaglandin E1 tablet (tablet Misoprostol 25 µg 4 hourly) and Intra cervical Dinoprostone gel 0.5 mg. For this purpose 100 clients were given vaginal prostaglandin E1 tablet (tablet Misoprostol 25 µg 4 hourly) and 100 clients were given Intra cervical Dinoprostone gel 0.5 mg. It was observed in this study that Dinoprostone gel is more efficacious for cervical ripening and labour induction in cases of nulliparous & primiparous at term with unfavourable cervix with intact membranes, as compared to misoprostol in terms of shorter total duration of labour, shorter mean induction delivery interval, more spontaneous vaginal deliveries, and reduced incidence of LSCS as well as instrumental deliveries.

Keywords Cervical Ripening, Induction of Labour, Intracervical Dinoprostone Gel, Intravaginal MisoprostolTablets.

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Tear dysfunction syndrome: Microstructural findings in vivo

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the morphological changes of the Meibomian glands in patients with evaporative “dry eye” compared to normal subjects by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). To correlate these changes to the clinical observations and tear functions.

Methods: The study was based on trans-tarsal images of 30 normal and 30 diseased lids (patients with subjective complaints and objective symptoms of evaporative “dry eye”). Each participant was examined by in vivo LSCM (HRT3 Rostock corneal module). The results were compared to histological findings of normal or pathologically changed Meibomian glands.

Results: Patients with evaporative “dry eye” presented with destructive changes of the Meibomian glands as follows: occlusion of the lumen, impaired morphology of the acines, lack of normal structure and infiltration with inflammatory cells. Reported ocular surface and tear function abnormalities were correlated to the Meibomian glands dysfunction (MGD). In all cases the lid hygiene and anti-inflammatory treatment demonstrated tendency to restoration of the structure.

Cоnclusion: In vivo LSCM can effectively demonstrate the morphological changes of the Meibomian glands in patients with evaporative dry eye symptoms. This noninvasive technology is useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool for in vivo assessment of the histopathology of many ocular surface disorders and monitoring of the therapeutic effect in patients with MGD. Glandular acinar density and acinar unit diameter seemed to be promising new parameters of Meibomian glands in vivo confocal microscopy. The examination has the potential to change the evaporative dry eye treatment approach.

Keywords Dry Eye, in vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy, Meibomian glands

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