Bacterial Examination of Wells of the Maâmora Tablecloth: A community based survey in Kenitra, Morocco
Abstract—Pollution of water resources is a global problem. Unfortunately, groundwater is more sensitive to contamination by industrial waste, agriculture, household waste and wastewater that lead to physicochemical (pesticides, heavy metals, nitrates) and biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites) pollution. Bacterial contaminations of water are responsible for the emergence of many serious epidemic diseases (Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis etc). The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of farms intensification and untreated sewage discharges on the microbiological quality of Maâmora water wells. Initially, bacteriological analysis done to identify not only pathogenic faecal germs but also indicator germs which have the same origin and which indicate that the water has been in contact with feces. In a second step, these identified germs were counted. Germs included in this study were Escherichia coli and Streptococci. Analysis were done about total & faecal coliforms and faecal Streptococci from the raw water of 16 boreholes on the Maamora aquifer, Kenitra. Microbiological analysis of the waters of these studied boreholes were compared with WHO standards of potability i.e. Zero bacteria/100mL for Faecal Coliforms, Total Coliforms and Faecal Streptococci. This study reveal that there was more (33% to 42%) contamination in studied wells with total germs who attained 1 to 13 bacteria/1mL. These results calls for an improvement of the control water quality of the Maâmora and develop vigilance tools for decision-makers to managers.
Keywords— Pollution of water, Bacterial contamination, Maâmora Tablecloth, Morocco.
Abstract—Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a substantial problem for patients undergoing procedures in spite of advances in surgical techniques and medical care. So this case series of SSI were studied to know the clinico-epidemiological profile of these cases to better know the etiology for better prevention. This study was conducted on 100 cases of SSI admitted and operated in surgical wards of upgraded department of surgery in Sawai Man Singh Hospital Jaipur, chosen at random irrespective of age, sex undergoing emergency laparotomies. It was observed from this study that most common sign and symptom was discharge (38%) followed by pain and tenderness (33%), raised local temperature (23%) and suture under tension/cut though (11%). Most of the wound infection was detected on 3rd to 5th post operated day. Regarding collection in wound it was observed that 60% was with seropurulent collection 18% with serous and purulent collection and 5% with fecopurulent collection. Etiological agent was found E. coli in 27% followed by Enterobactor (5%), Staphylococcus (2%) and Kleibsella (1%) and Pseudomonas (1%).
Keywords: Surgical Site Infections (SSI), Laparotomies.
Micro-albuminuria in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients: A case control study
Abstract—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prominent health problem and micro-albunemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these CVDs in developing countries. This case control study was designed to find out burden of micro-albuminuria in non-diabetic non-hypertensive CVD patients and its associating factors. In this study, 50 Non Diabetic Non Hypertensive CVD Patients were submitted to a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation. Patients with known micro-albuminuria, UTI and congestive heart failure were excluded. These cases were compared with matched controls. It was observed that 36% of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive CVD patients had microalbuminuric by Clinitek method. There was a positive association between dyslipidaemia and micro-albuminuria was also observed in this study. The microalbuminuric CVD patients (non-diabetic, non-hypertensive) had significantly elevated levels of serum cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p<0.05) and LDL (p<0.05) as compared to normoalbuminuric patients. It can be concluded from this study that the micro-albuminuria was present in more than one third of non-diabetic non-hypertensive CVD patients. Older age group, Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profile had significant relationship with the presence of micro-albuminuria.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), Triglycerides, Micro-albuminuria.
Comparison of pregnancy outcome with use of metformin versus insulin in management of gestation diabetes mellitus: An interventional study
Abstract—Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a problem which may occur during pregnancy. For treatment of GDM either the Metformin or Insulin is used. So this prospective randomized multicenter trial in women with GDM was conducted to compare the treatment outcomes of metformin and insulin. This study was conducted at Rajkiya Mahila Chikitsalaya, in Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer. This study was done on 110 women who were diagnosed GDM by DIPSI criteria with a singleton pregnancy and meet entry criteria are randomized to insulin or metformin treatment (55 cases in each group).It was observed that metformin is equally efficacious and safe as insulin with a lot of advantages like less costly, better compliance, less weight gain, less change of hypoglycaemic attack and more feasible as insulin require several daily injection with not much difference in perinatal outcome except statistically significant difference in baby weight, mean cord blood sugar level at birth, large for gestation age. So it can be concluded that Metformin treatment is suitable for non-obese as well as obese type 2 diabetes patients in pregnancy without complications. Metformin is a safer alternate to insulin in GDM management with no adverse maternal and fetal outcome.
Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), pregnancy outcomes.
Abstract— Pterygium is a common disorder in many parts of the world including India. So this study is designed to find out the bio-socio-demographic profile of Pteryzium cases which can help in understanding its distribution. This study observed that mean age of individuals with Pteryzium was 37.23±1.71 years. Maximum number of cases belongs to ≥26-50 years of age (83%). Pterygium was found slightly more in females was 55.71% as compared to males (44.29%). Most of the cases were housewife (52.86%) followed by labourer (14.29%). Majority (80%) cases were exposed to sunlight. Mean size of pterygium was 2.616±0.529 mm ranging from 2 mm to 3.8mm.In our study, with Keratometer, mean astigmatism was found 1.35±1.127D and from Scheimpflug imaging, mean astigmatism was found 1.22±0.95D in this study.
Keywords: Pterygium, Bio-socio-demographic factors, Astigmatism Scheimpflug imaging.
Incomplete EEC (Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate) syndrome with bilateral Entropion: A Case Report
Abstract—EEC syndrome is a very rare syndrome having ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/ palate as cardinal signs with other variable associated features. Very few cases being reported. It is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Such cases need coordinated multidisciplinary approach for treatment. A case of incomplete EEC syndrome having ectrodactyly and cleft palate with absence of the signs of ectodermal dysplasia with no systemic anomalies was reported. Other features noted in this case were syndactyly of fingers and toes with bilateral entropion.
Keywords: Syndrome, Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, Syndactyly, Entropion.