Growth Assessment of Microorganisms in Vermicomposting of Municipal Wastes Materials in Different Days
Abstract— In India over population, migrate village to town, various industries development, agricultural and municipal wastes have release to dumping of waste materials caused a serious causes to the environment. India enormous quantities of disposable organic wastes materials like municipal solid waste (MSW) rich in plant nutrients were presented.
The macro and micro nutrients are available more in MSW, it is not properly decomposed (or) vermicomposting. MSW can’t be eaten directly by earthworms due to it bad smell, heavy metals, insects; water leachate to organic wastes etc. So the organic wastes such as dairy farm waste – cowdung (CD) and sugar industrial waste – pressmud (PM) with clay soil high nutritive content were mixed in equal ratio and used as bedding material (BM). The experimental bedding materials were prepared on dry weight basis by mixing the MSW + BM in the following percentage: T1 – 20% BM + 80% MSW, T2 – 40% BM + 60% MSW, T3 – 60% BM + 40% MSW, T4 – 80% BM + 20% MSW, C1 Control (BM alone) were also maintained separately. The microbial populations (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) were enumerated in the samples of 0 (Initial day), 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The quantity of microbial population in the worm worked compost (vermicomposts) has significantly increased than worm unworked mixture. Microbial population was observed more in the vermicomposts of E. eugeniae than the L. mauritii. It could be due to the higher feeding rate, prolific breeding ability, suitable environment and multiplication of microbes while passing through the gut of worms and optimal moisture and activity of microbes.
Keywords— Bedding materials, Municipal solid waste, Lampito mauritii, Eudrilus eugeniae, Microorganisms.
Abstract— The present investigation was carried out on three notified rice hybrids namely, Hybrid 6201, Hybrid 6444 and Hybrid KRH 2 and one high yielding variety IR 64 during kharif 2006 and kharif 2007 at two locations i.e. Simbhaoli (U.P.) and Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) to compare the physical (milling and head rice recovery) and chemical characteristics ( amylase content, gelatinization temperature and aroma) of these hybrids and inbred variety IR 64. The results showed that the mean performance for milling recovery and head rice recovery were higher at Hyderabad during both the seasons. Amylose content and gelatinization temperature showed milar values at both the locations. Further, the milling and head rice recovery of V3 (Hybrid 6444) was more as compared to IR 64. Aroma of V3 (Hybrid 6444) lost after ageing of three and six months. Further, milling recovery and head rice recovery increased with increase in ageing from one month to six months. It can be recommended that if hybrids are planted at the density of 33 plants per hill with two seedlings planted per hill and the harvest is aged for six months before milling, high head rice yields can be obtained.
Keywords— Aroma, gelatinization temperature, hybrids, head rice yield, milling recovery.
Soil Population Density, Kernel Infection and Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut – A Survey of North Gujarat
Abstract— About 100 groundnut pod and soil samples were collected from different locations of North Gujarat and were tested for soil population of A. flavus, percent seed infection and aflatoxin contamination. The average soil population of A. flavus of Kachchh district (4.93 x 103 cfu g-1soil) was slightly higher than Banaskantha district (4.90 x 103 cfu g-1 soil). Minimum soil population of A. flavus was recorded with the variety J-11 grown as rainfed. Moreover, it was maximum when groundnut crops were grown after groundnut whereas; minimum after pulse crops; and a little difference between the irrigated and the rainfed samples were recorded.
The average of seed infection was higher in the Banaskantha district than the Kachchh. Maximum seed infection was recorded in the variety GG-20 grown as irrigated; whereas minimum in the variety J-11 cultivated in rainfed. Maximum seed infection was recorded when groundnut was grown as previous crop, while minimum when pulses were grown as previous crops. Irrigated crops showed higher seed infection as compared to the rainfed crops.
None of the samples were found free from aflatoxin, but 51.00 per cent of the samples were within the safe limits. The average of Kachchh district was 14.22 ppb whereas in Banaskantha, it was 15.33 ppb .According to variety, the maximum aflatoxin (21.34 ppb) was recorded in the variety GG-2 cultivated in irrigated condition, while the variety J-11 cultivated in rainfed condition recorded minimum aflatoxin (4.55 ppb). Groundnut cultivated after groundnut recorded maximum, whereas it was minimum when pulses where grown as previous crops.
Keywords— Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Groundnut, Seed infection, Soil population, Survey Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Groundnut, Seed infection, Soil population, Survey.
Effect of Replacement of Cement by Different Pozzolanic Materials on Heat of Hydration and Setting Time of Concrete
Abstract— The paper aims to focus on the possibility of using industrial by products like SF, GGBS, FA and MK. The utilization of pozzolans is well accepted because of several improvements possible in the concrete composites. The present study reports the results of experimental study conducted to evaluate Setting Time, HOH and Compression Strength of Concrete, by partially replacing cement by various percentages of silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), fly ash (FA) and metakaolin (MK) (5%, 10%, 15%, & 20%). The Heat of Hydration (HOH) and Compression Strength test are done for M30 grade concrete. The effort is made towards a specific understanding of efficiency of pozzolans in concrete considering the percentage of replacement and combinations of pozzolans. The pozzolans replacement as cementitious material is characterised by high compressive strength, low heat of hydration and increased initial and final setting time of concrete.
Keywords— Concrete, GGBFS, Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Metakaolin, Heat of Hydration, Setting time, Shear test.