Abstract— The objective of this paper is to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load with the effects of inertia force, Coriolis force and centrifugal force considered. To this end, the theory of moving mass element for plate and that for beam are presented, where the property matrices of the last elements are derived based on the superposition principle and the definition of shape functions. It is found that the order of the property matrices of the moving mass element for plate is , while that for beam is . Combination of the property matrices of the moving mass element and the overall property matrices of the plate (or beam) itself gives the overall property matrices of the entire structural system. Because the property matrices of the moving mass element have close relationship with the instantaneous position of the moving load, they are time-variant and so are the overall property matrices of the entire structural system. For validation, the vibration characteristics of the rectangular plate due to a moving load are compared with those of the beam, with its sizes being the same as those of the plate, due to the same loading conditions and satisfactory agreement is achieved. Some factors closely relating to the title problem, such as the moving-load speed, acceleration, inertia force, Coriolis force and centrifugal force, are investigated. Numerical results reveal that all the above-mentioned parameters affecting the dynamic responses of the plate to some degree.
Keywords— Dynamic responses, Plate, Beam, Moving mass element, Moving load.
Assessment of dynamic traction therapy in lumbar disc herniation by clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes
Introduction: “Dynamic traction therapy” (DTT) is a new standardized conservative treatment option in lumbar disc herniation. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DTT in lumbar disc herniation, by correlating both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes.
Materials and methods: In a total of 27 patients (mean age 50.5±9.1), who underwent standardized DTT, MRI was performed before and after therapy and evaluated by two independent radiologists individually and blindly; both grading intervertebral discs according to Pfirrmann classification in terms of degeneration, morphology, localization and nerve root affectation. The effect of standardized DTT on painful herniated discs was correlated with numerical pain rating (NPR) scale from 0 to 10 and clinical outcome.
Results: Significant MRI changes were found in images after therapy compared to before therapy regarding morphology and nerve root affectation (p< 0.05), but disc degeneration grading showed only a tendency towards improvement (p> 0.05), interestingly showing a better disc hydration after therapy. Patients’ NPR decreased from a mean value of 10 to 1 after completed therapy, thus showing a significant change in pain (p< 0.001). Clinical outcome measurements improved significantly after therapy (P<0.001), however changes of MRI grading did not significantly correlate with pain rating and clinical outcome (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Lumbar disc herniation grading showed a positive correlation with patients’ decreased NPR after undergoing standardized DTT, therefore our preliminary results might impact in the therapeutic management of patients complaining of lumbar disc pathology, however further longitudinal studies are recommended.
Keywords— Intervertebral disc herniation, traction therapy, Magnetic resonance imaging.
Abstract— Cellulose is the main constituent of plants, serving to maintain their structure. Indeed, it is a major component of tough cell walls that surround plant cells, and is what makes plant stems, leaves, and branches so strong. Cellulose represents the most abundant carbohydrate substance in nature. It is a bio-polymer of glucose units related by β1, 4 glucosidic linkages. Cellulose degradation requires a multi–enzymatic system composed of three enzymes which are respectively: the endoglucanases, the cellobiohydrolases and finally the β-glucosidases. The chemical industry has come under increasing pressure to make chemical production more eco-friendly and independent to fossil resources. The biocatalysts are the best solution given by nature that can be used to improve some biotechnological applications. The use of this renewable material within the packaging industry has gained increasing interest in the last decades. In this research review, we report some peculiar information’s and useful data describing cellulases as biocatalysts, their modulation, implication in a range of metabolic pathways and biotechnological tools.
Keywords— Cellulose, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, beta glucosidase regulation, catalytic site topology, biotechnological application.
Flow Injection Analysis of Indigo Carmine Using Green Coconut (Cocos Nucifera L.) Fiber as a Bioadsorbent
Abstract— This paper deals with a procedure for preconcentration and determination of indigo carmine in textile industrial effluent. The product of Indigo blue sulphonation, 5,5´-disulfonic indigotin (5,5´-DI) aqueous solution was run through a mini-column packed with green coconut fiber (Cocos Nucifera L.) in a flow injection system. The 5,5´-DI was preconcentrated on the sorbent at pH 2 and sample flow rate 3.9 mL min-1 and eluted by HCl 0.1 mol L-1 to be detected by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 612 nm. An increase of 18.7% in the indigo recovery was observed with fiber washed with albumin and 11.7% in fiber washed with NaOH. A linear response was observed within the range 0.157 to 75.2 µmol L-1, with detection limit, coefficient of variation and sampling rate estimated as 0.0376 µmol L-1 (95% confidence level), 4.5% (n = 21) and 101 determinations per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor achieved was 1.64. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of 5,5´-disulfonic indigotin in textile industrial effluents.
Keywords— Adsorption, flow-analysis, green coconut, solid-phase extraction, spectrophotometry.
Abstract— This paper is focused at providing a solution to optimal power flow problem in power systems by using soft computing approaches. The proposed approach finds the optimal setting of OPF control variables which include generator active output, generator bus voltages, transformer tap-setting and shunt devices with the objective function of minimizing the fuel cost. Soft computing optimization methods have been implemented based on genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The proposed soft computing techniques are modelled to be flexible for implementation to any power systems with the given system line, bus data, generator fuel cost parameter and forecasted load demand. Proposed soft computing optimization techniques have been analyzed and tested on the standard benchmark IEEE 30-bus system. Results obtained after applying both optimization techniques on American Electric IEEE 30-bus system with the same control variable maximum & minimum limits and system data have been compared and analyzed. Proposed methods efficiently optimize and solve the optimal power flow problem with high efficiency and wide flexibility for implementation and analysis on different power system networks.
Keywords— optimal power flow, Fuel cost minimization, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization.
Abstract— Maneb is a broad spectrum fungicide, often reported as a carcinogenic, teratogenic and neurodegenerative agent. Thus, the occurrence of maneb at non-targeted sites is a cause of concern. The present study investigates adsorption–desorption behaviour of maneb in the agricultural soils to know its fate, mobility and availability in the soil. The sorption study was carried out by batch equilibration procedure. Maneb adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and was accompanied by increase in manganese content of the soil. Maximum adsorption was observed in soil having the highest clay content. High maneb retention was observed in presence of soils modified with organic matter. The results of this study indicate that the clay and organic matter content of soil have significant influence on sorption behaviour of maneb. Amending soil with organic matter can reduce maneb pollution at non-targeted sites.
Keywords— Fungicide, Parkinson disease, Manganese, Organic matter