The Effect of Agroforestry Practices and Elevation Gradients on Soil Chemical Properties in Gununo Watershed, Ethiopia
Abstract— This study was conducted in Gunugo watershed at Wolayitta zone to assess the amount of some soil chemical properties affected by traditional agroforestry practices and along different elevation gradients. The dominant agroforestry practices (homegarden, parkland and woodlot), and three elevation gradients (upper, middle and lower) were used to collect soil samples. One composite sample was taken from each sampling point from each soil depths, under three agroforestry practices and three elevation gradient with three replications to have a total of 54 soil samples at 20 x 20 m plot. Then the selected soil chemical properties among agroforestry practices and along elevation gradient was determined at p<0.05. The EC, pH and CEC of the top soil was significantly higher on homegarden than parkland and woodlot while EC, pH and total nitrogen of the sub soil were significantly higher on homegarden than parkland and woodlot. Further, only the top soil EC and CEC were significantly higher on lower elevation than upper and middle elevation and there was no significant difference in sub soil chemical parameters among elevation levels. In relation to this, most of the soil chemical properties show as the study area is being degraded. Therefore, are recommended for sustainable soil chemical property management. Hence, homegarden is suggested as a better agroforestry practice for rehabilitation of the area in a sustainable manner through enhanced accumulation of total nitrogen, good EC and CEC at all elevation gradients.
Keywords— Chemical property, Elevation, Homegarden, Parkland, Soil, Woodlot.
Abstract— The content of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) which is excessive in the soil could affects on the soil and plants health. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the ability of selected indigenous plants in stabilizing Cd. The study was conducted at an agricultural production center in Batu City, East Java, Indonesia. There were two stages of this study, namely: (1) analysis of nutrient and heavy metal contamination, and (2) phytoremediation experiment by using five types of indigenous plants. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Once the plants were harvested, the plant materials then were analyzed the heavy metal content remaining in the soil and absorbed by the plants. The heavy metal content analysis used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry). Subsequently, the analysis result data were calculated for the bio-concentration factor (BCF) and heavy metal reduction. The initial content of heavy metal Cd in the soil prior phytoremediation had passed the threshold value (2.26 mg kg-1). The five indigenous plants tested on the contaminated soil showed a good growth pattern, especially in the fourth week after planting. The average ability of this selected plant to reduce heavy metals Cd was up to 71.2%. The reductions of heavy metals Cd obtained by each plant were Vetiveria zizanioides (71.2%), Eleusine indica, L. (58.9%), Ageratum conyzoides L. (52.2%), Euphorbia hirta (51.8%) and Chromolaena odorata (22.1%).
Keywords— Phytoremediation, contaminated land, heave metal Cd, indigenous plants
Use of Biochar to Improve Selected Soil Chemical Properties, Carbon Storage and Maize Yield in an Ultisol in Abakaliki Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Abstract— An experiment was carried out at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki to evaluate the effect of biochar on soil chemical properties, carbon storage and maize performance in an Ultisoil in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated five times. Data collected were analysed using the General Linear Model of SAS software in RCBD and significant difference dictated using F-LSD. Soil samples were collected and analysed for organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, available P, exchangeable bases and exchangeable acidity while crop performance measured were maize height and maize grain yield. Results of the study showed that biochar amended plots had significant (P < 0.05) higher organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, available P, exchangeable bases, exchangeable acidity, carbon storage, maize height and maize grain yield than control. Also, there was an increase in the magnitude of the parameters with an increase in the rate of biochar applied. This study recommends that biochar should be used as soil amendments to increase soil productivity and carbon storage in the soil to reduce the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere.
Keywords— Biochar, CO2 emissions, Maize yield, Soil productivity
Abstract— During the last 5 decades precipitation records in Jordan have shown a general decreasing trend. Such decreases have certainly their impacts on the availability of surface and groundwater, on soil moisture contents (green water) and on the surface and groundwater qualities.
In this article the impacts of decreasing precipitation on the availability of surface and groundwater will be analyzed.
The results show that a decrease in precipitation of 10% will result in the reduction of flood runoff by about 39%, and a reduction in groundwater recharge of 16% in rain rich areas receiving more than 500mm/yr increasing to 59% in areas receiving moderate precipitation of around 300mm/yr.
Keywords— climatic changes, evaporation calculation, surface and groundwater.
Abstract— Transformation of land use pattern from agriculture to massive shrimp cultivation has been taking place in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. The present study attempts to find out various impacts associated with shrimp cultivation in Parulia union of Debhata upazila, Satkhira. A three months long field study was carried out in 2014 in twelve villages of the unions under study. The data were collected through a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches: questionnaire surveys, focus groups discussions (FGD), field observation, key informants interview (KII) and secondary materials. The research revealed that shrimp cultivation has direct impact on agriculture in the study location. Though the traditional occupation of people in the area was agriculture (98%, N=102), however, after introduction of commercial shrimp cultivation (approximately 20 to 25 years ago) people in the area are overwhelmingly engaged in shrimp cultivation (86%, N=72). Due to encroachment of agricultural land by shrimp farm present land use strategies in the studied area have also changed drastically. Presently only 42.2 percent of respondents own agriculture land (N=102) whereas about 91.2 percent of respondents (N=102) own gher in the study area. Average agriculture land of respondent households in the area has also been reduced from 3.37 bigha to 1.45 bigha, whilst area and number of ghers of respondent households are increasing. Out of 44.16 km2 of land in the study area 32.66 km2 are under shrimp/bagda cultivation and only 4.19 km2 (Boro cultivation = 3.50 km2 and other crop cultivation = 0.69 km2, Table 8) are now being used for agriculture. With the increase of shrimp cultivation soil salinity is also increasing, as a result most the agriculture land becomes infertile and ultimately crop yields become reduced. Local rice varieties such as Patnai; Durgavogh; Kartikshail; Nagirshail; Chinikanai; Lalgati; Dhungati; Ashfali; Balam; Boran; Jamaibabu etc. are not able to cope with the excessive soil salinity, as a result farmers have to cultivate salinity tolerant high yielding varieties such as Jamaibabu 10; Aftab 1-10; BIRI 28, 30, 41, 47; BINA 7, 8, 10, 22, 28; Minikat; ACI 1, 2; Hira; Akhter 6; Sakti; Sathi; Aloron; Aata 70 etc.
Abstract— 15 accessions from 10 different grid square of Turkey were analysed based on IRAP and seed protein patterns in order to observe the genetic diversity in the gene pool of Capparis. High levels of polymorphisms were detected with IRAP primers (93%) and seed protein electrophoresis (55.5%). Specific delineation between C. spinosa and C. ovata, and segregations of the accessions related to infraspecific status and eco-geographical distributions were presented in the dendrograms and PCA analysis. Significantly correlation between IRAP markers and seed protein profiles of the specimens was detected (p< 0.0001). Combination of genomic/proteomic marker systems may be useful approach for determining the broad genetic diversity in gene pool of Capparis, identification of the germplasms and ecologically tolerant genotypes in breeding programs.
Keywords— Capparis, IRAP, seed protein, variation, genetic resources.
For Domestic Wastewater Treatment, Finding Optimum Conditions by Particle Swarm Optimization and Experimental Design
Abstract— Performing jar test method is used for finding out optimum conditions (coagulant type, coagulant dose, pH etc.)for treatment of domestic wastewater before physicochemical process, or coagulation process. In this study, Response Surface Method (RSM) is applied to determine optimum combinations of coagulant dose and pH value in jar test. Alum, FeCl3 and FeSO4 are used as coagulant and compared with highest removal efficiency of their two responses which turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD).Finding equations from RSM are also evaluated with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method by using Matlab Program. Alum and Ferric Chloridedose500 mg/lat pH7 found as optimum conditions for domestic wastewater treatment. COD removal for Alum and Ferric Chloride are 90% and 70%,respectively.In addition, Because of becoming low COD removal (maximum 50%) and ineffectively color removal, Ferric Sulfate coagulant found as inconvenient for treating domestic wastewater.
Keywords— Optimization, Domestic Wastewater Treatment, pH, COD, Turbidity, PSO, RSM.
Abstract— NaOH, H2O2 and NaOH/H2O2 treatment methods were investigated to eliminate the lignin and hemicellulose distributed in the lignocellulosic matrix of rice husk. In order to prevent the decomposition of H2O2 at higher temperatures, a low temperature treatment for 4 hours has been performed. A composition analysis indicated that NaOH/H2O2 may achieve the highest concentration of α-cellulose, but had the lowest overall solid recovery rate. Both FTIR and TGA results confirmed that only the H2O2 treated rice husk contained hemicellulose residue, which could be found at the absorption peak 1740 cm-1. The TGA analysis demonstrated the NaOH/H2O2 modified rice husks presented the most uniform structure. The SEM gave a clear picture of the raw rice husks and modified rice husks.
Keywords— cellulose, delignification, H2O2, kinetics, NaOH.
Characteristics of village chicken production in farming system in Côte d’Ivoire: case of Korhogo area
Abstract— A study on the local chicken production parameters has been undertaken in the area of Korhogo. The work was conducted by a survey focused on 110 small farms from 20 villages (Koulélékaha, Natyo- Kobadara, Bafimé, Paroginékaha, Latakaha, Lénékaha, Lérikaha, Dyègbè, Pokaha, Torgokaha, Dokaha, Karakoro, Tyoronyaradougou, Nanbadyélékaha, Konborodougou, Dobyankaha, Lonakaha, Nalougovogo, Nalolokahaand Nanvikaha)in the department of Korhogo. The herd of the poultry farms varied from 10 to 105 chickens. The work shown that traditional poultry farming is practiced in majority by women and young with respective distributions of 60 % and 62.27 %. In 82 % of cases, breeding products are both for home consumption and marketing. Only 20 % of that product are solely for sale and marketing. The breeding system of that farm is extensive with a dietary and sanitary behavior which does not comply with the art standard. The housing of these animals are precarious henhouses which do not fit norms and good hygiene practice to guarantee the well-being of those birds. Three (3) types of chickens were defined on the basis of the tradition of the Sénoufo(people of the north of the Côte d’Ivoire) considerations. The age for chickens to start laying varied from 6 to 8 months for39 ± 4 eggs in 3 ± 1.10 laying per year. The eggs per laying were 9.75 ± 4 eggs for an average weight of 35 ± 3.48 g. The average incubation duration was 21 ± 2 days with a hatching rate varying between 50 % and 90 %. The adulthood traditional chickens’ weight in that farm varied from 1 to 1.5 kg.
Keywords— traditional poultry, farming, production, Côte d’Ivoire
Abstract— Agriculture (the agricultural exports flagship from southern Brazil) is highly dependent on temporal rainfall distribution. However, the technology used in the field has been altering this relationship. Such technology, in addition to minimizing the effects of climate variability, has increased the annual soybean yield observed in the trend analysis, which was positive in 17 of the municipalities studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the rainfall variability and soybean production in one of the areas of greatest soybean production in southern Brazil by applying the quartile, percentile, Pettitt (homogeneity – break results) and Mann-Kendall (trend) tests. The results indicate a significant relationship between annual rainfall variability (1999-2000; 2009-2010) and soybean yield (kg/ha), particularly during the growing season of 2009-2010 when the yield variation between municipalities was low. It was concluded that the statistically significant correlations indicate that the soy dependence ranges from 22% to 50% in certain municipalities.
Keywords— Rainfall variability, agriculture, soybean, agricultural climatology, southern Brazil.
Abstract— Soil found in tidal swamp, Indonesia is dominated by acid sulfate soil. This soil is very acidic resulting in infertile soil for plant growth. This soil is also found in large distribution in South Sumatra, Indonesia with low food crop production. This acidic soil is shown in low content of nutrient and organic matter causing farmers should supply fertilizer in large quantity to support plant growth. Due to increasing price of inorganic fertilizers, farmers are difficulty to purchase the conventional fertilizer. To overcome this problem, it can be introduced some local organic resources such as agricultural wastes to supply nutrient for plant growth or applying for indigenous microorganism to increase nutrient problem. To that respect, this paper will discuss about the organic local resources to improve food crop growth such rice and corn planted in acid sulfate soil. The organic materials analysed used were composted rice straw, cow bone powder, cattle slurry, cow blood powder, ash rice straw and additional anorganic materials used like natural rock phosphate and zeolite. Highest content of N, P and K elements released from organic materials were found in cow blood powder with value of 6.51% N, 1.69% P and 0.125% K respectively followed by cow slurry and humic acid substances of composted rice straw. Furthermore, zeolite contained K, Ca and Mg amounting to 1.28% K, 3.39 % Ca and 0.85% Mg, whereas rock phosphate has Ca content amounting to 20.15% and Mg 2.68%. These materials both organic and anorganic substances were prepared for raw material as a solid organic fertilizer. The composition of solid organic fertilized combined with mineral fertilizers consisted of 45% Humic Acid (HA) + 30% Conventional Fertilizer (CF = 4N:2P:1K) + 25% Natural Material (NM) with a dosage of 750 ton/ha provided the best growth of paddy rice with highest yield of 6.12 ton/ha for Ciherang variety. Meanwhile liquid fertilizer with composition of gliricidia leaves, bamboo shoots, banana weevil, maja fruit, bananas and coconuts water with the rate of 10 l /ha yielding 5.92 ton rice/ha. Moreover, application of 1000 ml POME combined with 10% zeolite produced 5.05 ton/ha corn.
Keywords— acid sulfate soil, cow blood and bone powder, organic fertilizer, paddy rice, humic acid.
Influence of an Uchkun Preparation to some Agricultural Crops which are Grown under Unfavorable Conditions
Abstract— The effect of an Uchkun preparation on growth, development and yield of cotton under water deficit and wheat in saline soil conditions were studied. The field experiments showed that the pre-sowing seed treatment by Uchkun at a dose of 1.0 liter per ton of seed contributes to the stimulation of growth and development of cotton in ontogeny and increases the yield of raw cotton to 2.5 quintal per hectare (qu/ha). The harvest increases of 4.7-6.3 qu/ha in the case of treatment of wheat seeds by spraying method in the tillering phase by the same dose, and at pre-plant treatment of seeds the harvest increases of 3.8-5.2 qu/ha depending on the type of wheat. It was found that the plant origin preparation Uchkun improves the adaptation of plants to unfavorable conditions, such as drought, high temperatures, and soil salinity.
Keywords— cotton, wheat, biostimulant Uchkun, crop yields, resistance.
Abstract— The Indian Sundarban on northern Bay of Bengal is the largest contiguous mangrove forest on earth, is a highly productive and diverse ecosystem (ES) with an aerial coverage of 9629 Sq Km. This ecosystem is also providing a wide range of direct or indirect ecosystem services (ES) and livelihood opportunities for the society. The extent of aerial coverage of the forest has not changed much in the last decade, but the health of the forest degraded along with their ecosystem services, as found from several studies. Traditionally, people of this region are dependent on farm based economy, else on the forest resources. Collection of natural honey from the forest is one such traditional practice while apiary beekeeping (Apiculture) started in the last decade only. This study is an attempt to understand the existing status of apiary beekeeping (Apiculture), their potential and constraints within the Satjalia Island, in the context of alternate livelihood option, either full time or as a seasonal profession.
Keywords — Satjalia Island, Indian Sundarban, Beekeeping (Apiculture), Alternate livelihood.