IJOEAR : November 2015

Agriculture Journal,Environmental Journal,International Journal

The Influence Of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Consumers’ Preference on Fish Purchase In Yola North Local Government Area, Adamawa State

Abstract The study examined the influence of socio-economic characteristics on consumer’s preference on fish purchase in Yola North local government area of Adamawa state. Data from the study were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire administered randomly to 100 consumers out of which 99 were retrieved. Multiple Regressions was used as a tool to examine the influence of socio-economic characteristics on consumer preference on fish purchase. The result of the study revealed that majority of the consumers who prefer fish were between the ages of 41-50; 48.48% were males, 51.52%were females. Majority (78.79%) of consumers were married. The results further revealed that the consumers had attended one form of formal education or the other. 21.2%had secondary education, 77.8% had tertiary education, while 1.0% had other form education. Analysis of the consumers’ household size revealed that 44.4% were found to be between 4-6 persons. An analysis of consumers’ preference for fish was found in the study. Results revealed that 16.2% purchased their fish from wholesalers, 76.8% from retailers and 5% from importers. 2% purchase from other source. Most of the fish purchased were both fresh and smoked fish (47.5%). Results also showed that the average monthly income of the consumers were 58.6% (51,000>) and 67.7% of the consumers like at least very much to eat fish. The regression analysis gave an R2 of 88.01% and the independent variable X1 (Age), X3 (educational level), X4 (income) and X5 (household size) were positively significant and affect the amount spent on fish. The study also revealed that income, availability of fish and good storage facility were factors limiting consumers’ preference for fish in the study area. Recommendations on the study was that infrastructural facilities should be made available, and fish farmers should be supported by providing them with some incentives to encourage them to produce more to meet the increasing demand of the teeming population.

Keywords: consumer, preference, fish, socio-economic

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Mycorrhizal diversity and root colonization potential of agricultural soils – Doukkala, Morocco

Abstract Underarid and semi-arid ecosystems where drought, soil salinity and low soil fertility considerably limit crop production. Under such stressful growing conditions, an appropriate management of mycorrhizae may have a determinant impact on plant production, on the improvement of soil quality and the diversification of cultivated crops. In this context, the diversity of the arbuscularmycorrhizae flora in semi-arid agricultural soils of OuledGhanem and SidiBennour sites of the Doukkala region, Morocco was evaluated and the impact of soil physico-chemical factors on their root-colonization potential studied. The two selected studied sites are respectively characterised by neutral to alkaline substrates, low level of organic matter but differed in their respective texture, sandy soil and muddy soil and their low to medium available P contents. The comparative analysis of the arbuscular mycorrhizal flora reveals a certain amount of shared species and is characterized in sandy soils by a good proportion of Diversisporales: Scutellosporacalospora, Acaulosporacavernata, Entrophosporainfrequens, Gigaspora margarita when the muddy soils are inhabited with a majority of Glomerales (Glomus.sp). Correlation between physico-chemical and biological soil data enlighted the negative impact of alkalinity and available phosphorus on the soil root colonization potential. The comparative data analyses bring in a critical look at the possible interaction between fungal diversity, mycotrophic plant and root colonization.

Keywords Arbuscular, mycorrhiza,biodiversity, Glomeromycetes, mycotrophic.

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Impact of crop rotation on mycorrhizal fungi in irrigated soils of the Doukkala (Morocco)

Abstract This study has been conducted on the soils of irrigated perimeter of Doukkala. It is to assess the impact of the rotation of a species not mycotrophic (Beta vulgaris) with cereals on the natural resources of the mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi whose profits for the growth of plants are known. The results obtained show that this type of culture has a negative effect on the richness of the soil in spores and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi, and on the content of arbuscules which are the places of exchanges between the partners. The authors offer recommendations on cultivation practices which can be modulated in order to preserve this natural resource.

Keywords Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, cultural history, Doukkala, irrigated areas, semi-arid.

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Herbicidal Activity of Imazapic (262.5 G / L) Associated With Imazapyr (87.5 G / L) on Sugar Cane Weeds and Its Effects on Soil Agrochemical Properties, in Burkina Faso.

Abstract Merremia tridentata, Corchorus olitorus, Euphorbia heterophylla are weeds which cause significant damage to sugar cane. To remedy this, while saving the environment, a study of the biological efficacy of imazapic 262.65 g / l associated with Imazapyr 87,5g / l (CMT 505) and its secondary effects on soil agrochemical properties was done at Bérégadougou, in Burkina Faso. The biological efficacy of herbicides was evaluated by counting and weighing the dry biomass of weeds using a sampling square of 0.25 m² placed on four tufts diagonally on the 4 lines of the useful plot. The soil nitrogen nitrate and assimilable phosphorus contents were evaluated on a spectrophotometer, those of available potassium on a flame photometer. The biological efficiency coefficients of CMT 0.6l / ha varied from 80.96% to 100%. Those of CMT highest doses , phyto-toxic varied from 48.12% to 100%. The nitrogen nitrate, assimilable phosphorous soil contents in herbicides treatments were not different from those of manual weeding. The dose of CMT 0.6l / ha led to a reduction of 32.20% potassium available content compared to manual weeding at the end of tillering. All these factors have allowed CMT, applied at the rate of 0.6l / ha, a surplus of 11.03% cane yield, of 14.74% extractable sugar compared to the untreated control and equivalent to manual weeding. CMT 505 does not interfere, at studied doses, the dynamic evolution of soil agrochemical properties.

Keywords Imazapic, Imazapyr, weeds, agrochemical properties, Burkina Faso.

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Detection of Slime-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Food and their Sensitivity against Mulinum echegarayii and Azorella trifurcata Extracts

Abstract The contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms producing biofilm, implies a high cost for the food industry and represents a serious risk for the health of consumers. The antibacterial activity of organic extracts of Azorella trifurcata and Mulinum echegarayii was evaluated against 4 Staphylococcus aureus slime-producing strains isolated from bakery foods and against S. aureus ATCC 35556 slime-producing strain and S. aureus ATCC 25923 non slime-producing strain. The plant extracts showed antibacterial effectiveness against all the strains of S. aureus tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 500 and 8000 µg/ml. M. echegarayii 30:70% AcOEt:HEX showed the best activity: five strains of S. aureus showed MIC of 1000 μg/ml and S. aureus ATCC 25923 was inhibited at doses of 500 μg/ml. The values of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts assayed were one or two times higher than corresponding MIC values. This study showed that extracts of Azorella trifurcata and Mulinum echegarayii are promising for future natural therapy against slime-producing S. aureus. Plant extracts with activity against slime producing S. aureus strains could provide benefits for of food technology and public health.

Keywords Antibacterial activity, Slime, Staphylococcus aureus, Organic plant extracts.

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Dust career impacts on Pinus halepensis growth

Abstract Pinus halepensis Mill., is a most common tree in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, specifically Kroumirie, it is an excellence species. However, for several years, we assist a continual deterioration of this ecosystem type. Several factors are the origin for this degradation: insects and fungi attack, fire, aging populations, low regeneration and hardening climate. This degradation is further accentuated by installing careers around the pine forest. Our objective in this study was to identify the career dust influence on growth and productivity of Aleppo pine; through dendrochronological approach (tree rings study) and dendrometric approach (measurement of diameter, height and survival rate). Study is accomplished on two populations: a reference site ‘Charchara’ located away from mining and Oued el maaden site near a gravel extraction career. In addition, physical and chemical parameters are analysed on soil and water samples collected in the two sites. Results showed significant differences of parameters studied between stations both in dendrometric and dendrochronological parameters over time. Second, in physical and chemical parameters, a very high content on metals traces was found on soil and water in Oued el maaden site.

Keywords career, growth, Pinus halepensis, productivity.

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