Yield and yield attributes in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) somaclones for quality seed production
Abstract— The experiment was taken up to elicit the information on the performance of different ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) somaclones for yield and quality for quality seed production. Ten somaclones of ginger were evaluated in RBD with three replications during 2015-18 at College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur district, Kerala. The growth performance of ten somaclones indicated significant variation at all the stages of crop growth. Among the somaclones, SE 86102 (16.00 days) and SE 8626 (16.33 days) registered least number of days for sprouting. Among the vegetative characters studied, the maximum plant height (107.38 cm) was recorded by the somaclone SE 86102 which was significantly superior to other somaclones and check varieties. Somaclone CHP 118 recorded maximum number of tillers (20.33), number of leaves per shoot (28.67) and total number of leaves per shoot (117.33). The highest leaf area was recorded by C 8632 with a value of 62.12 cm2. Among the rhizome characters recorded, the somaclone CHP 118 gave highest number of primary rhizomes (4.83) which was on par with SE 8626 (4.33) and C 8632 (4.08). The highest number of secondary rhizome was recorded by CHP 118 (10.33) which was on par with SE 8626 (10.06) and C 8632 (10.01). Weight of mother rhizome was the highest in the somaclone SE 8642 (11.00 g) and CHP 118 (10.67 g). Similarly, weight of primary rhizome was highest in SE 8642 (15.73 g), SE 8626 (15.07 g) and CHP 118 (14.80 g). Weight of secondary rhizome was highest in SE 8626 (13.20 g) and SE 8642 (12.33 g). The highest fresh rhizome yield per plant was recorded by somaclone CHP 118 (274.13 g), SE 8626 (266.67 g), C 8632 (259.67 g) and SE 8642 (251.67 g) at full maturity. The highest yield per plot was recorded by somaclone CHP 118 (8.77 kg), SE 86 26 (8.54 kg), C 8632 (8.31 kg) and SE 8642 (8.06 kg). The fresh rhizome yield per hectare was was maximum in CHP 118 (35.08 t), SE 86 26 (34.16 t), C 8632 (33.24 t) and SE 8642 (32.24 t). It is concluded that somaclones were highly variable in their performance, yield and yield attributes. Four somaclones viz., CHP 118, SE 8626, C 8632 and SE 8642 were identified as high yielders from their outstanding performance throughout their growth period with highest yield in CHP 118. This can be due to more number of tillers, leaves per shoot and rhizomes and also weight of primary, secondary and mother rhizomes.
Abstract— Industrial processes create variety of solid and liquid wastes; which may contain pollutants that have potential harm to humans, animals and the environment. Hence the challenge for disposal of waste for industries cannot be ignored. In these studies, a survey was conducted in the capital city of Botswana; Gaborone to investigate waste management practices for selected manufacturing companies. The findings indicate that companies disposed waste in different ways; 50% out-sourced waste collection services, while 8.3% disposed to waste treatment plants, 33.3% in sewage lines and the other 8.3% in the open flat land. Only 33.3% uses ponds to deal with its effluent and consequently recycle it. Of the companies surveyed, 33.3% of the companies indicated that they have hazardous wastes. Preliminary investigations on contaminates that find their way into the city’s sewage system shows that, Pb concentrations did not exceed maximum allowable concentrations of 5.0 mg/L, whereas Cd and Cr concentrations exceeded the maximum allowable concentration of 0.01 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l in irrigation water respectively.
Abstract— Now, approximately 20% of farmland in the world becomes salt damage soil with unsuitable properties for agriculture. In general, salt was removed from soil by flushing out with rain water due to the improvement of soil permeability using gypsum and so on. However, there are arid and semi-arid areas with an insufficient supply amount of rain water to remove salts from soil. In this study, a novel method to capture salt in soil using various calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as a desalination agent was attempted to estimate desalination property from seawater. 4 kinds of LDH with the different M2+/M3+ ratios are prepared using 2 kinds of Mg2+ and Ca2+ as M2+ and 2 kinds of Al3+ and Fe3+ as M3+. The desalination ability of these calcined LDHs was investigated using seawater. As a result, the decrease of salinity was confirmed using all samples. Among these samples, the calcined Mg-Al LDH with Mg/Al = 3.45 and Ca-Fe LDH with Ca/Fe = 2.35 indicated the highest desalination property, due to the decrease of Cl– and SO42- from seawater, by reconstruction reaction. Ca-Fe LDH was calcined at various temperatures and the desalination ability at different calcined temperatures was also evaluated. It was found that the desalination ability of calcined LDH depends on the calcination temperatures and Ca-Fe LDH calcined at 500℃ indicated the highest desalination ability.
Cost effective production of Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai and their application against Spodoptera litura
Abstract— Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was prevalent in many species of aquatic plants grown in Green Farms. This study was carried out to understand the production of Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (Bta) using cost effective method to manage the pest biologically. Bta is being widely used in pest control programs. However, the production of this Bta is expensive due to the high cost of the production medium. In this study, an attempt has made to develop a cost-effective medium, based on a locally available raw materials namely coconut water which is available in plenty as waste product from coconut oil industry, coconut poonac, rice bran and coir dust. A standard conventional Luria Bertani medium was included in the assay for comparison. Media were assessed for the growth, sporulation and production of insecticidal properties of Bta. Coconut poonac extract and coconut water media produced higher spores than compare with conventional LB medium. Maximum spore count of 25.0×1013 spores/mL was obtained with a 72 h old culture of this bacterium grown in coconut poonac extract. Larvicidal activity (LC50) of 8 ×106 spores/mL (coconut poonac extract) against early second-instar larvae of S.litura were obtained. This is almost similar to that obtained with LB (9 × 106 spores/mL) medium. Hence, coconut based culture medium is economical for the production of Bta and compared favorably with the standard. Cost-effective analyses have revealed that production of Bta from test media is highly economical. The cost of production of Bta with local media was significantly reduced by 88-293 fold. The use of nonconventional sources has yielded a new knowledge in this area as the process development aspects of small scale production have been neglected as an area of research. These studies are very important from the point of media optimization for economic production of Bta based agents in pest management programs.
Regional Distribution of Fusarium verticillioides in Mexico and Its Implications in Animal, Human Nutrition and Health
Abstract— This study was designed to investigate the presence of Fusarium species in Mexican corn. Maize samples from 26 States were analyzed. Corn kernels were cultivated following a sequence of cultivation methods until obtaining spores which were transferred to carnation leaf agar medium. Taxonomic identification of fungi was carried out by microscopic examination. To evaluate the in vitro production of fumonisin B1, it was experimentally induced in un-contaminated maize. The quantitative determination of fumonisin B1 in the maize samples was performed by thin layer chromatography. Quality control and sensitivity were established using a standard solution of commercial origin whose purity was corroborated by both thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.
Thirty-eight strains were isolated; 29 corresponded to Fusarium verticillioides and 9 to Fusarium subglutinans. Strains of Fusarium verticillioides exhibited a variable behavior in fumonisin B1 production. 4 strains produced fumonisin B1 in a range of 3.12 to 6.57 ppm.
In conclusion, two species of Fusarium; Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans were found in maize from 26 States of Mexico, their distribution is regionalized. Strains found in five States produced fumonisin B1 in concentrations that can be considered clinically relevant.