IJOEAR: November 2016

Agriculture Journal: Published its volume-2, issue-11, November 2016 with AD Publications

Determinants of Cocoa Farmer’s Participation in the Innovation Platform of the Humidtropics Programme in Southwestern Nigeria

Abstract In an effort to determine factors influencing cocoa farmer’s participation in innovation platform (IP) activities of the Humidtropics programme, data was collected from purposively selected 177 farmers using multistage technique sampling technique and was gathered through the use of structured interview schedule. Data were collected and analyzed with percentage, frequency counts, mean, standard deviation and factor analysis. The study shows the mean age of the cocoa farmers in the IP to be 51.16±12.64 with about 52% aged above 50 years, female were only (23.73%), with more than 75th percentile literacy level and only about 31% of respondents generate annual income from farming above ₦50,000 while about 70% made below ₦40,000 extra income from other occupation. The mean farm size was 16.87 ±16.04 acre, farming experience 25.42±10.48 years and household size was 9.78±5.52. The six significant determinants of cocoa farmer’s participation in IP arranged in order of magnitude are psychological factor (λ = 3.158), experience factor (λ = 2.164), community related factor (λ = 1.697) educational factor (λ = 1.854), economic factor (λ =1.438) and internal factor (λ = 1.113). The summative effect of the identified factors accounted for 76.17 % variation observed in cocoa farmer’s participation in the IP.

Keywords Innovation platform, Humidtropic programme, cocoa farmers and participation determinants.

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Impact of Bio-fertilizer with NP Application on yield and yield components of wheat variety Tijaban-10

Abstract It was noted from the present study that the maximum grain yield and fresh biomass yield 2799 kg ha-1 and 10373 kg ha-1 respectively was recorded in treatment-3 with application of Bio-fertilizer (AzospirillumA1-Q) + N 45kgha-1 and P2O5 30kgha-1.Whereas, minimum grain yield and fresh biomass yield 1340 Kg ha1 and 6783 kg ha-1 respectively was noted in treatment-1 (control). Both grain and biomass yield increased due to increase in number of tillers, grain weight and suitable Nitrogen fixation, showing positive effect of mineral fertilizer (Biomass yield= Clipping of crop before heading stage for fodder purposes). The results proved that application of bio fertilizer in combination with N 45 kg ha-1 and P2O5 30 kg ha-1 increased 100% grain yield and 52% fresh biomass yield as compared to the treatment-1 (control).

Keywords Wheat, Bio-fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorous, yield components.

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Chemical analysis of agro-pollutant coir pith- a byproduct of coir industry

Abstract Coir pith is a byproduct of coir industry. It is dumped as an agricultural waste for a long period of time. Usually it is disposed by burning which may release lot of carbon into atmosphere causing air pollution. Coir waste has a high lignin and cellulose content. its carbon nitrogen ratio is around 100:1. Because of the high lignin content Left to itself, coir waste takes decades to decompose.Thus it is leached out during course of time due to rain in to water resources causing water pollution. Enhanced microbial activity due to climatic effects eventually degrades the pith. Coir pith is recalcitrant and accumulates in the environment forming hillocks posing environmental pollution in the areas close to coir fiber extraction units. In this study, 4 samples of coir pith at different stages as a function of time were selected and the chemical contents were compared for the degradation studies. It was observed that the raw coir pith contained higher chemical contents. Therefore, coir pith can be treated with the help of microbes in the raw stage itself and can be used as the raw material for plant growth in an eco-friendly way.

Keywords Cellulose, Coir pith, Electrical conductivity, Lignin, pH, Total dissolved solids.

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Diagnostic Techniques for porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2) by Optical and Transmission Electron Microscopy

Abstract The porcine circovirus type 2 is the etiologic agent of the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) or post-weaning multisystemic cachetizing syndrome. Swine circovirosis is considered an emerging disease that can become a limiting factor for the development of the porcine industry worldwide. This study is aimed at detecting the PCV-2 presence in organ fragments of 65 terminated pigs from slaughterhouses in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, using histopathology and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Microscopic lesions were found in 84 (18.46%) organ fragments from 12 necropsied pigs. Various degrees of lymphoid depletion and diffuse infiltration of histiocytes, presence of giant cells and basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions were the main lesions observed by histological technique of H & E. Using the immunohistochemistry technique, 84 (18.46%) organ fragments were positively stained in brown by DAB, varying in intensity and location according to the selected tissue. Following the in situ hybridization technique, in all 84 (18.46%) organ fragments positive cells were found in the inflammatory infiltrates, including macrophages. By the negative staining technique, non-enveloped, isometric, circovirus-like particles were found, characterized as “complete” and “empty”, measuring 17 nm in diameter in 84 (18.46%) organ fragments. The antigen-antibody interaction was characterized by aggregation of circovirus particles in the immuno-electron microscopy, in all positive samples. Using the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody interaction was strongly enhanced by the dense colloidal gold particles over the circovirus. The results of the histopathological techniques were similar to those of the transmission electron microscopy techniques, both being satisfactory for detection of PCV-2.

Keywords Histopathology, Swine, Transmission electron microscopy, Type 2 Circovirus.

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Evaluation of Genotype x Environment Interaction on Morphological Characteristics of Eight Selected Labisia pumila var. alata Clones (Kacip Fatimah) by Francis and Kannenbergs Method

AbstractSince Labisia pumila species are not yet produce locally, it is important for this species to undergo propagation and testing at different environment in different location so that only variety or clones that has good mean plant growth over a wide range of environments can be identified as well as introduced to Malaysia farmer. In other means, the selected clones of L. pumila produced are genetically superior and genetically stable. The aim of this study is to evaluate interaction of genotype x environment between eight selected Labisia pumila var. alata clones and to identify stability of these eight clones respected to plant growth characteristics; plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, and collar region. Eight clones (KF01, KF02, KF03, KF04, KF05, KF06, KF07 and KF08) had tested at four different locations of FRIM Research Station; SPF Mata Ayer, Perlis; SPF Maran, Pahang; SPF Setiu, Terengganu; and FRIM Kepong, Selangor. The experimental unit consisted of 3 blocks, 0.7 m between clone and 0.4 m within rows in randomized complete block design (RCBD) at area of 0.04 ha under a drip irrigation system. Clones main effect from ANOVA analysis was found in give highly contribution for the phenotypic expression of this species at each locations. Across locations, highly significant was found for clone and location / (GXE) effects. The interaction existed raised the need to use stability analysis by Francis and Kannenberg’s method to predict the stability. Results scattergram from Francis and Kannenberg’s method showed that clones KF07 and KF08 were shows its superiority in growth performances as both present in Group I. Thus, both were selected as potential elite planting materials as they considered stable and perform well in various range of environments at four locations trial.

Keywords Environments, Labisia pumila, plant growth, scattergram, stability.

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Territorial Potential as A Factor of Development: A Model for the Management of the Rural Milieu in Mexico.

Abstract Towards the problems faced by the rural milieu in the last decade, various means and procedures have been promoted in order to solve the situation. Nevertheless, institutional contributions have been limited and not too favorable where a better development in rural areas is concerned. Notwithstanding, thee efforts have been acknowledged as examples for the re-orientation of the government policy aimed at the rural sector. The objective of the present work is demonstrate that the development potential and the public programs that could have a possible impact, require methodological proposals that are sensitive vis à vis the various elements of the productive and social structure. This proposals should also be sensitive to the problems that hinder the betterment of the living conditions of the rural population and the promotion of territorial development. In order to try to solve these problems, we use a socio-spatial interaction model that shows the characteristics of the local activities and resources. The model also shows the role played by public, social and private actions as integrating factors in the development of the territories chosen for the actions in question.

Keywords rural development, socio-spatial interaction, rural programs, territorial development potentials, territorial management.

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Quality of milk protein in dairy farms from Southeastern region of Brazil

Abstract The quality of milk protein is related to the capacity of milk being processed or not, called thermal stability. Unstable Non Acid Milk is characterized by low casein stability that results in precipitation during alcohol test without presence of acidity on milk sample and determines great damages. This study had the objective of diagnosing protein quality and occurrence of Unstable Non Acid Milk on raw milk produced by dairy farms of the Southeastern region of Brazil. For investigation of occurrence, 201 dairy farms were chosen and received a trained technician to collect milk samples monthly. During one year 2,970 milk samples delivered in dairy plants were evaluated for milk quality (fat, protein, lactose, solids non fat, somatic cell count and total bacterial count) and for protein quality in terms of thermal stability using titratable acidity, alcohol test and pH. As a result, it was observed that 7% from 52 million liters of processed milk were classified as Unstable Non Acid Milk. There wasn’t relationship between occurrence of Unstable Non Acid Milk and milk production level. However, occurrence displayed a variation throughout months during the year, being the final of fall the highest incidence of the problem. The milk identified as Unstable Non Acid Milk showed changes on milk composition, in special for lactose, what can describe a possible relation between the problem and nutritional practices, more specific related to carbohydrate metabolism, what can help to find the prevention and/or control the problem of thermal stability related to milk protein.

Keywords Milk Composition, Thermal Stability, Unstable Non Acid Milk.

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Dielectric Measurement of Euglena gracilis as a Multi-parametric Approach for Non-invasive Biomonitoring of Aquatic Environment

Abstract Dielectric spectroscopy was employed for monitoring biophysical parameters of Euglena gracilis in suspension to assess a possibility of using this method for a new biomonitoring system for detecting and identifying pollutants in aquatic environments. E. gracilis was subjected to different types of membrane-affecting toxic chemicals (1 mM chlorpromazine, 1 mM HgCl2, or 1 mM Triton X-100), and dielectric measurement of the cell suspension was carried out over a wide frequency range between 5 kHz and 3 MHz. All of these chemicals at the designated concentrations induced similar changes in cell motility of Euglena cells; flagellar activity was inhibited and rounding-up movement of the cell body was induced. These chemicals also induced distinct changes in dielectric properties of the cell suspension, but the manner of changes in dielectric behavior was unique to individual chemical species, suggesting a possible use of this technique for quick identification of toxic materials in aquatic environments.

Keywords Biomonitoring, Dielectric spectroscopy, Impedance.

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Nutritional Security and Improvement of Yield through Mechanized Cultivation of Mungbean

Abstract Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is one of the major pulse crops in Bangladesh. It contains different nutrient, vitamins, mineral and amino acid. Agricultural machinery play an important role to reduce drudgery of farm works as well as minimize operational time and production cost. An experiment was conducted with three treatments viz. T1 = Two Wheel Tractor (2WT) + Broadcasting seed, T2 = Power Tiller Operated Seeder (PTOS) and T3 = Strip Tillage (Two wheel tractor operated seeder modified as Strip tillage seeding) on farm research. The objective of this study was to achieve the goal of increased Mungbean production in Bangladesh through different tillage and seeding methods. Besides, to disseminate information in the farmer’s level conservation tillage is new technology for increasing and sustaining productivity of Mungbean cultivation in mechanized way. From the study, the results revealed that seeding with Power Tiller Operated Seeder (PTOS) treatment was the most effective for production of Mungbean among all tillage and seeding methods in considering total yield 1582.53 Kg/ha. So, it may be concluded that the treatment Power Tiller Operated Seeder (PTOS) considered as the best treatment compared to all other treatments and it can be recommended for more Mungbean production and ensuring nutritional security.

KeywordsMechanized cultivation, power tiller operated seeder, strip tillage and two wheel tractor.

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Trypanosome parasites and its diverse hosts: A Review

The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the interactions between trypanosomatid parasites, its hosts and thoughts about their impact on environmental health, especially in those regions where hosts are natural reserves of many species. Wild life has been a major source of infectious diseases transmissible to humans [1, 2]. The zoonoses with a wild life reservoir represent an important public health problem all over the continents. A zoonosis is an infectious disease transmittable between animals and humans [3]. It is thought that trypanosomes had a single origin monogenetic as exclusively insect-borne parasites and later become digenetic parasites when vertebrates emerged since the Mesozoic era 230 mya [4]. Trypanosomes belong to the order Kinetoplastida and they infect many organisms.

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Genomic identification of rhizobia-related strains and threshold of ANI and core-genome for family, genus and species

AbstractAiming at accurately and rapidly identifying our heavy metal resistant rhizobial strains, genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) and core genome analyses were performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 45 strains in the families of Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobiaceae. The results showed that both of the ANI and core-genome phylogenetic trees revealed similar relationship. In ANI analysis, the 90%, 75% and 70% ANI values could be the thresholds for species, genus and family, respectively. Analyzing the genomes using multi-dimensional scaling and scatter plot showed highly consistent with the ANI and core-genome phylogenetic results. With these thresholds, the 45 strains were divided into 24 genomic species within the genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium and a putative novel genus represented by Ag. albertimagni AOL15. The ten arsenite-oxidizing and antimonite tolerant strains were identified as Ag. radiobacter, and two Sinorhizobium genomic species differing from S. fredii. In addition, the description of Pararhizobium is questioned because ANI values greater than 75% were detected between P. giardinii H152T and Sinorhizobium strains. Also, reversion of the species definition for several strains in R. etli and R. leguminosarum was suggested. Our results demonstrate that analyses of ANI and core-genome are rapid and confident methods to identify the rhizobial strains, and it will be also convenient when more genome data are accumulated.

KeywordsAntimonite tolerance, arsenite-oxidation, genome, phylogeny, Rhizobia.

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Occurrence of Albino Gazella bennetti in Viratra mata Oran (Sacred land) of Chohtan, Barmer (Thar Desert of Rajasthan) India

Abstract The study carried out at the Viratra mata oran, Dhok (Chohtan) village of the Barmer district and this study is completely based on the observation and interview of the local people for occurrence of albino Indian Gazelle locally called Chinkara at the study site. The Indian Gazelle is considered an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). In this Paper we describe the occurrence of Albino Indian Gazelle in this region (Viratra mata oran, Dhok village of the Barmer district). This area is located west site of the Barmer near by the Pakistan border. General eco-behavior of this animal is noted which are similar to the normal Indian Gazelle.

Keywords Albino, Chinkara, Gazella bennetti, Oran, Threats.

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Bioremediation Through The Use of Indigenous Natural Resources vis-a-vis Its Impact on Morphology, Metabolism, Yield, Soil Health and Soil Biodiversity of Paddy Field Under  Fluoride Toxicity

Abstract An assessment was undertaken to study the combating capacity of bacterial consortia isolated from different sources viz. oil spillage sludge and water spillage of petrol pump and rhizosphere of rice plant against the fluoride toxicity under field condition. Oryza sativa was selected as a test species. The recommended doses of chemical fertilizers (70:35:35) and different concentration of sodium fluoride (25 , 50 , 100 , 200 , 300 , 400 and 500 mg Kg-1 F) were used for first set of experiment and the second set were treated with vermicompost, compost, bacterial consortia and different concentration of sodium fluoride(25 ; 50 , 100 , 200 , 300 , 400 and 500 mg Kg-1 F). Among all of the species Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium were resistant and survived under fluoride polluted condition. One unique thing was observed from these experiment that paddy which were grown under indigenous organic inputs treated plots gave maximum yield under T1 treatment (25 mg Kg-1 F) which was above the control set. Moreover, stress enduring metabolites viz. proline content of flag leaves were lowest recorded under indigenous organic inputs treated plots as compared to chemical fertilizer treated plots. Data were significantly different at 5% level using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. From the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value of paddy clearly depicted that the crop of those plots were treated with indigenous organic inputs were more resistant for enduring stress condition. In these experiment combination of vermicompost, compost and bacterial consortia were capable of reducing the amount of fluoride within plant parts especially in grains (< 0.3 mg Kg-1 as recommended by EPA, FAO and WHO), where fluoride was within permissible range as well as they reduced the fluoride content within the soil (2.57-16.44 mg Kg-1. as recommended by FAO, EPA, and WHO) as was noted by measuring the fluoride in the plant parts and soil after the experiment. Therefore, bacterial consortia could be an alternative for bioremediation of fluoride.

Keywords APTI, Fluoride, Oil spilled site, Stress enduring metabolites, Vermicompost.

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What we know currently about the Metalloproteins in the protozoa Tetrahymena pyriformis and thermophila.

Abstract In recent years, the protozoan Tetrahymena is used as a model to detect aquatic toxicity and eco-toxicological effects with its application as a “whole-cell biosensor” (WCB) to be the mostly known for the environmental monitoring of heavy metal pollution. This review attempts to summarize the current state of knowledge of identified metalloprotein coding genes in Tetrahymena pyriformis and thermophile species..

Keywords metalloproteins, protozoan, Tetrahymena, whole-cell biosensor (WCB).

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In vitro root induction and growth of Lens esculenta and Physalis ixocarpa shoot explants by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

Abstract Direct effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are associated with the production of phytohormones and clearly the root growth promotion is one of the major markers by which the beneficial effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria is measured. Recent studies reported that treatments of stem cuttings with beneficial microorganisms such as Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species, induce on rhizogenesis, growth promotion of in vitro cultured plants by the natural auxin production of these bacteria and their Inoculation in tissue culture eliminate many of the difficulties associated with the rooting of stem cuttings and protect the micropropagated plants against biotic and abiotic stress. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the auxin rhizobacteria producer Pseudomonas sp. strain C2 on rooting and shoot elongation of Lens esculenta and Physalis ixocarpa stem cuttings. In this work, two particularly responses were obtained: root production and shoot elongation in Physalis ixocarpa and only shoot elongation in Lens esculenta stem cuttings. In both plants their mass clonal propagation response was clearly related to their genetic nature, although there was evident the stimulation of growth by the presence of the inoculated Pseudomonas sp. strain C2.

Keywordsplant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Physalis ixocarpa, Lens esculenta, stem cuttings, in vitro plants.

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