IJOER: April 2018

Engineering Journal: published its volume-4, Issue-4, April 2018 with AD Publications

Dimensioning of a natural ponds as wastewater treatment plant for the city of Ouazzane

AbstractMorocco has a mobilizable water heritage of 21 billion m3 including 16 billion m3 of surface water and 5 billion m3 of groundwater. Unfortunately due to the exponential population growth and economic and social development, these water resources cannot meet the growing demand of the agriculture, industry and drinking water sectors.

In addition, more than 546 million m3 of raw wastewater is discharged annually into the receiving environment and only a tiny proportion is reused in the irrigation of about 7000 ha. Most of the wastewater discharged is responsible for the pollution of the environment.

To seek new water resources while curbing pollution, Morocco has undertaken a gigantic project of treatment of its wastewater. The city of Ouazzane, like other urban agglomerations, must choose an adequate system for the purification of its wastewater discharges.

The present work proposes the design and sizing of a natural lagoon WWTP based on demographic data, pollutant load, wastewater flow and availability of land for the city of Ouazzane.

The project proposes a pretreatment using a vertical manual screens of 36 bars of 10 mm diameter and spaced 12 mm and a Grit/Grease Separator of 5.6×1.8 m in size. Primary treatment with a circular primary decanter 16 m in diameter, 3 m deep and 602.88 m in volume. Four anaerobic basins 4 m deep, 8204 m3 in volume and 58.02 x 35.35 m in size. Also four Optional ponds 2m deep, 41008m3 deep and 107 x 192m in size. Finally, four maturation ponds of 1 m deep and 6400 m3 of volume each.

Keywords Wastewaters, Epuration, Lagoons, Ouazzane, Morocco.

Click here to Download Full Paper

___________________________

Electron Tomography (=Controlled Electron Tomography)

Abstract Proposed “electron tomography” or electron imaging of human body is most advanced technology to be available to do tomography of human body in comparison to existing CT(Computerised tomography), MRI(magnetic resonance imaging), PET(positron emission tomography), SPECT(single photon emission computed tomography).

Keywords electron tomography, electron imaging of human body, Computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography.

Click here to Download Full Paper

_________________________

Investigation of the surface morphology of ASD-4 powder, modified by V2O5

Abstract The changes in the surface layer of aluminum particles treated with V2O5 • nH2O hydrogel were studied by ellipsometry and raster electron microscopy methods. It was shown that at 0.8 wt.% content of metallic vanadium in the modified powder, the particle surface layer has a well developed relief, and a high degree of impregnation is achieved. The values of the thickness of this layer measured by different methods were compared, and the obtained deviations were analyzed.

Keywords aluminum powder, surface modification, vanadium pentoxide, microscopy, ellipsometry.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Transient Excited State of Neutron

Abstract Spinning of proton and electrons in nucleus results in separation of charges and inside of nucleus gets positively charged whereas the electrons occupying outermost part of nucleus becomes negatively charged which is transient.

Keywords Neutron, spinning, transient state.

Click here to Download Full Paper

_________________________

Determining Important Grade of Environmental Risk Factors at Slopes

Abstract Both, natural and man-made slopes formed for various purposes may cause numerous permanent problems in engineering applications. Therefore, it is important to know composition and mechanical behavior of soil environment leading to geotechnical problems on slope surfaces. The risk analyzes of natural and artificial slopes, realized detailed, can lead to reliable results. Based on those results, it is possible to produce optimal technical solutions with respect to an acceptable risk level. The researches on these subjects give new opportunities to improve the existing knowledge by reviewing them. The main aim of this study is objectively to evaluate the parameters caused slope stability problems. In this regard, the parameters of slope angle, internal friction angle and cohesion of soil, and groundwater level, which are main risk factors for a slope, and should contribute to raise awareness about this issue, were investigated.

Keywords Factor of safety, risk factors, slope stability.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Clear-Water Experimental Scour Depths at Abutments

AbstractLaboratory experiments on local scour process at wing wall bridge abutments were conducted for different hydraulic conditions and compared with measurements on local scour depths around vertical wall abutments, under the same flow and sediment transport conditions. The study reports an extensive experimental investigation performed in a laboratory flume in the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, whose findings are used to describe the effects of different hydraulic parameters on local scour depth variation in the vicinity of the constructions. Three different sizes of wing wall abutment’s lengths, transverse to the flow direction, were used in order to investigate the impact of this parameter to local scour variation. The expected bed erosion and the maximum scour depth at the upstream edge of the wing wall abutments are satisfactorily simulated by the experimental procedure. All the experimental results are graphically presented and comparisons between clear-water scour depths around the vertical wall and the wing wall abutments show lower values of scour depths in the vicinity of the wing wall abutments, under the same hydraulic and sediment transport conditions and for the same abutment widths. The experimental data of clear-water scour conditions were used to determine an equation of maximum equilibrium scour depth through regression analysis. The estimated scour depths were in agreement with the experimental values for each abutment geometry.

KeywordsAbutments, Laboratory experiments, Open channels, Scour depth.

Click here to Download Full Paper

___________________________

Application of the Factorial Design Technique for the Optimization of the Chemical Isolation Process of Lead in Environmental Analyzes

AbstractNuclear energy plays a key role in long-term development plans and can guarantee the supply of electricity to some regions. On the other hand, the implementation of these projects tends to require long maturation periods, require high investment costs and may be a source of pollutants, such as Lead (Pb). For this reason, the periodic environmental monitoring of the concentration of pollutants becomes necessary, according to the current legislation. Thus, the present work presents as a proposal a method of optimization of Pb quantification in environmental analyzes. The study was developed through the monitoring of wastewater samples from INB – Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. From the Fractional Factorial Design(FFD) the most representative variables of the Pb isolation process were determined, and through the Central Composite Design (CCD) the response surface was found, generating a regression model that represents the system. The results indicated that the optimization of the chemical yield of Pb is associated to the higher dosages of Nitrilotriacetic Acid (NTA) and Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) in the samples. The optimum yield condition was obtained in the region of 200 ml of H2SO4 and 4.0 g of NTA, considering the range tested. The proposal proved to be effective for the validation tests of the model, obtaining an increase of up to 32% in the Pb yields of the analyzes.

KeywordsChemical Yield, Environmental Analyzes, Lead, Nuclear Power, Response Surface.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Image Based Visual Servoing for Omnidirectional Wheeled Mobile Robots in Voltage Mode

AbstractThis paper presents a new image based visual servoing (IBVS) control scheme for omnidirectional wheeled mobile robots with four swedish wheels. The contribution is the proposal of a scheme that consider the overall dynamic of the system; this means, we put together mechanical and electrical dynamics. The actuators are direct current (DC) motors, which imply that the system input signals are armature voltage applied to DC motors. In our control scheme the PD control law and eye-to-hand camera configuration are used to compute the armature voltages and to measure system states, respectively. Stability proof is performed via Lypunov direct method and LaSalle’s invariance principle. Simulation and experimental results were performed in order to validate the theoretical proposal and to show the good performance of the posture errors.

KeywordsIBVS, posture control, omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot, dynamic actuator, Lyapunov direct method.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Determination of 3-chloropropanediol in soy sauce samples by liquid phase extraction coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection

Abstract3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-chloropropanediol) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients and there has been recent concern about the levels of carcinogenic 3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in some soy sauces. This paper reports on the development of an analytical method for the fast determination of 3-MCPD at trace level in commercial soy sauce using novel liquid phase extraction (LPE)/cleanup coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. In this method, 3-MCPD was first isolated from soy sauce sample matrix by LPE/cleanup with Extrude NT3 column cartridges and the isolated (eluent) solution was subjected to MAD with acetophenone to form 2-methyl-2-phenyl-4-(chloromethyl)-1,3-dioxolane under microwave irradiation using a specially modified domestic microwave oven, then the derivatizeddioxolane was directly analyzed with a HPLC-UV system. The optimum conditions for MAD such as the ratio of reagents, acidic catalyst, microwave irradiation power and time, as well as the chromatographic conditions were thoroughly investigated. Experimental results indicated that maximum derivatization can be achieved in 10 min under microwave irradiation at 362 watts when compared to 18 hours by conventional refluxing reaction. The proposed method provided a simple and rapid analytical procedure for 3-MCPD analysis in soy sauce with the detection limit of 80 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviations were all below 3.0 % (n = 7). Application was illustrated by the analysis of commercial sauce sample obtained from a local traditional store in central Taiwan.

Keywords3-Chloropropanediol, liquid phase extraction, microwave-assisted derivatization, sample preparation, soy sauce.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Synthesis of oligoguanidine – Based on polycondensation and compare their Antimicrobial Activities with Chloramine B

Abstract Oligoguanidine with chain extension were synthesized by condensation and cross-linking polymerizations in an attempt to increase molecular weight and charge density of the anti microbial oligoguanidine. The reactions are procedure at 170 oC for 5h with ratio molar of HMDA: GHC = 1: 1.1, refined by vacuum filter at 60 oC. The Oligoguanidine OHMG.HCl synthesized has molecular weight equal 521 g/mol, chain structure and good water solubility. The comparison results of the antimicrobial activities of oligoguanidine with chloramine B indicated that MIC index of OHMG.HCl is 5ppm during MIC index of chloramine B is 50 ppm; MBC of OHMG.HCl is 12 minutes and MBC of chloramine B is 11 minutes; The SEM, TEM imagines exhibited clear biocide, low residue microorganism of OHMG.HCl. The LC-MS spectrum indicates the presence of haloacetic acid following the bactericidal action of chloramphen B, while OHGM.HCl is not available. This result confirms the environmental friendliness of oligoguanidine.

Keywords Oligoguanidine, Oligohexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, antimicrobial polymer.

Click here to Download Full Paper

__________________________

Preparation Possibilities and Examination of Calcium alginate UHMWPE blends

Abstract Previous researches were made on UHMWPE (Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene) based implant material and its fusion with Ca-alginate. New methods were made for preparing UHMWPE-Ca-alginate blends. If the coating Ca-alginate salt can be achieved on the surface of UHMWPE, it might lead to an implant material which could promote the bone formation. Earlier results show that we can make the coating layer on the polymer powder surface. Our new approach is to modify the method we made earlier, and this way the alginate layer can withstand washing and sterilization as it’s shown in the paper. We also realized that the layer slowly can give off Ca2+ ions which can be absorbed with specific cells. Since we modified the surface structure of the UHMWPE samples we carried out wear testing of the new prepared samples. All of these measurements and experiments have been done as preparative ones to make one time real prosthetic material.

Keywords UHMWPE, Na-alginate, Ca-alginate.

Click here to Download Full Paper

________________________

Metallurgical and mechanical behavior of brazed thin alloys sheets assemblies

Abstract Heat exchangers included in air conditioning systems for aircraft are produced by brazing stamped thin alloys sheets made of nickel-based alloys, Alloy 600 and Ni 201, or stainless steel, AISI 444. Separation metal sheets and locking bars of Alloy 625 are used to complete the system. The brazing filler metal, mainly composed of nickel, manganese, silicon and copper, is referred as BNi-8. In order to control brazing process, a good knowledge of both the brazing filler metal metallurgical behavior and of the interaction with the base metal is essential. The study of the brazing filler metal melting behavior in itself reveals that the melting point is highly dependent on the chemical composition and especially on silicon content. Microstructures analysis showed the presence of several phases with significant differences in terms of mechanical properties at a small scale which could induce local embrittlement. Interactions between the brazing filler metal and the different alloys constitutive of the assembly induce chemical composition evolutions related to the local configuration of the assembly. Dissolution and interdiffusion processes as well as chemical exchanges with the furnace environment occur. Finally, due to this set of phenomena, significant brazing defects can affect the mechanical integrity of the component.

Keywords Brazing, Microstructure, Melting point, Nickel-based filler metal.

Click here to Download Full Paper