IJOEAR : February 2016

RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY OF SORGHUM

Advances in Soil Amendment: Vermicomposting, Alumina Refinery Residue and Cotton Production in Australia

Abstract Cotton production is an important primary industry in Australia. However, the industry faces several challenges, including access to fresh water, disposal of cotton waste, and the ability of Australian soil to sustain pesticide-intensive cultivation. Research programs into a variety of techniques aimed at amending soil with fertilisers, particularly those produced from novel organic sources rather than industrial fertilisers, have also been developed. This paper therefore considered the relationship of worm castings produced from a municipal vermicomposting facility and a modified form of alumina refinery residue (MARR) as a possible nutrient source for cotton farming, and examined their combined potential as a biological fertiliser to amend agricultural soil and improve cotton yields. The study found the addition of MARR enhanced the chemical and biological properties of worm castings, for example improving caution exchange capacity and increasing the total microbial biomass of castings by 38%, and the combined effect of applying 240 L/ha of this non-traditional organic fertiliser increased cotton yields by 9% over a nine-week growing period.

Keywords Cotton farming, vermicomposting, worm castings, alumina refinery residue, soil amendment.

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Characterisation of some Ribes L. accessions from Turkey based on SSRs patterns

Abstract The variability of SSRs patterns were analysed for taxonomical delimitations including intra specific variations in 7 Ribes alpinum, 2 Ribes bieberstenii and 1 Ribes uva-crispa accessions from their natural populations. The total amplified produces of 10 SSRs primers were 172 between 50 and 330 bp (average of 17.2 bands per primer), of which 157 bands were polymorphic between Ribes accessions, corresponding to 91.2 % genetic diversity. The number of bands for each SSRs primer varied from 6 to 32. Segregations of Ribes accessions at specific and intraspecific levels were accomplished showing taxonomical and phylogeographical relations. Obtained results can be used as complementary data in characterizations of Ribes gene pool in Anatolia and selection of the germplasms suitable for crop improving.

Keywords Ribes, SSRs, taxonomy, variation.

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Seed management’s influences on nodulation and yield of improved variety of soybean (Glycine max)

AbstractA pot study was carried out on an improved soybean variety (TGX 1448-2E) to assess the effects of seed management on its nodulation and yield. The experiment was in factorial combinations with six replicates at the teaching and research farm of University of Abuja. The factors were 2 soils, 2 levels of phosphorus fertilizer (-P and + P), and 2 seed sources (farmer’s and researcher’s managed seeds). P was applied as triple superphosphate at 30 kg P ha-1. Destructive sampling was done at 8 weeks after planting to record growth parameters and nodulation. At maturity, the number and weight of pods, weight of 50 seeds and total seed yield were recorded. The results showed that generally researchers’ managed seeds showed a significantly higher mean values than farmers’ managed seeds. The pod and total seed weight from researchers’ seeds were 106.26 g and 52.43 g per plant respectively against the farmers’ managed seed with pod weight of 80.23 g and total seed weight of 44.35 g per plant. P application influenced significantly the weight of nodules, pods and seeds per plant. This significant lower performance observed in farmers’ managed seeds could have resulted from factors such poor seed handling or mix up during harvesting or storage, poor quality seed selection for planting.

Keywords Glycine max, seed management, phosphorus, nodulation, grain legume.

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Integrated bamboo + pine homegardens: A unique agroforestry system in Ziro Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Abstract Numerous “indigenous” and “traditional” land-use systems that exist in different parts of the world have not yet been properly documented. Considering that many agroforestry systems of today have evolved from such systems, it is important to understand the wisdom of the indigenous communities that have continually been experimenting in their own ways to improve and adapt them for their livelihood. The Apatani eco-cultural landscape in Ziro Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India signifies an excellent example of such a uniquely distinct natural resource management practice. This agroforestry system developed over the years by innovative efforts involves growing bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc.) or pine (Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks.) or a mixture of both on their fields. The Apatani is the only tribes in the states that manages such a unique land-use system and are highly conscious of maintaining their heritage and commitment to safeguarding nature and natural resources. By enhancing livelihood security and quality of life, conserving ecosystems, and fostering economic growth, this farmer-developed indigenous agroforestry system stands out as an example of ecosystem protection and natural-resource conservation in Arunachal Pradesh where resource-depleting shifting cultivation is still the mainstay of livelihood. Scientific analyses of the experience gained from this system – could offer lessons of valuable traditional ecological knowledge, which when properly assimilated could be useful in the design of sustainable agroforestry land-use systems.

Keywords Apatani tribe, Eco-cultural landscape, Eastern Himalaya, Indigenous systems, Resource conservation, Traditional ecological knowledge.

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The Socio-Economic Impact of Fadama III Project in Taraba State: A Case Study of Jalingo Local Government Area

Abstract The National Fadama Development Project III is a five years action program (2008 – 2013), which is aimed at increasing the income of fadama land and water resource users to reduce rural poverty and increase food security in the community. After five years of its operation in the state, there is need to examine the socio-economic impact of the project so as to appreciate its effectiveness or otherwise towards achieving its set objectives. To achieve this, questionnaires were administered to some of the beneficiary groups to appraise the impact of the project on their annual farm output and farm income. Student t-test was used to test the difference on beneficiaries’ mean farm output and income before and during Fadama III project participation. Findings of this study show that Fadama III project in Jalingo LGA is dominated by male (88.04%) and most of the beneficiaries are middle aged people (31-45 years). The beneficiary’ groups are dominated by married persons (88.04%), most of whom are farmers (93.48%). Greater proportion of the beneficiaries attended one form of formal education or the other, though, only few (19.57%) attained tertiary education level. The mean annual farm output and annual farm income of the project beneficiaries increased by 35.32% (from 63.34 bags to 85.71 bags) and 45.79% (from ₦261,880 to ₦381,790) respectively per annum. Furthermore, test of difference on the average annual farm output and farm income of beneficiaries before and during participation in the project in the study area shows a significant increase in their mean annual output and income. However, the project suffered numerous challenges both from service provider and community officers. These challenges range from inadequate capital, untimely disbursement of inputs, and procurement of substandard materials among others.

Keywords Fadama, Impact, Jalingo, Project and Socioeconomic.

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Studies on technological quality of sugar beets and soil parameters in relation to method of soil fertilization

Abstract The aim of the studies was to determine suitability of effluent from methane digestion of organic wastes generated during processing of sugar beets for soil application at sugar beet plantations. In the paper parameters of technological value of sugar beet roots harvested from plots with standard values (i.e. optimal values for processing) which were defined by the Institute are discussed. It was shown that effluent from digestion of sugar beet pulp can be utilized as soil amendment on sugar beet plantations without any restrictions bearing in mind content of heavy metals and harmful microorganisms. Nutrients contained in studied effluent from gasifier are available for sugar beet plants at the same level as nutrients from mineral fertilizers. Determination of heavy metals in soil samples taken before and after effluent application did not reveal accumulation of harmful elements in the soil in the result of waste utilization.

Keywords digestion effluent, fertilization, soil, sugar beet, sugar beet technological value.

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The development of sustainable bioplastics for new applications in packaging industry

Abstract The advantage of biodegradable plastics is their degradation under the influence of biological systems into substances naturally present in the environment, which are then placed in a natural circulation cycle of matter. Moreover, the biodegradable plastics waste not require additional segregation and separation from households, and are collected together with other organic waste and subjected to recycling under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Use of bioplastics reduces the harmful effects of waste on the environment, but does not eliminate it completely.

The article presents the results of (bio) degradation studies under industrial and laboratory (MicroOxymax) composting conditions as well as at atmospheric conditions of commercial disposable dishes from the Nature Works® PLA. Were also carried out investigation of abiotic degradation under laboratory conditions. It was found, from the macro- and microscopic observations, that the tested cups (bio) degraded in the selected environments, wherein in a greater extent under industrial composting conditions than in MicroOxymax. The GPC results, which show significantly reduce in the molar mass of the tested samples after specified incubation times in all environments, indicates that the hydrolytic degradation process occurs predominantly.

Keywords— (bio)degradation; industrial composting; PLA

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Identification And Control Of Strawberry Root And Stalk Rot In Iraq

Abstract This study was conducted to identify, test the pathogenicity of strawberry root and stalk rot pathogens and evaluate the efficiency of some biocontrol agents and fungicides to control the disease. The isolation and identification of fungi associated with infected plant samples showed that Rhizoctonia solani was detected in all studied commercial strawberry lath houses at different location of Baghdad-Iraq. The frequency percentages ranged 25.5-63.5 % and 10.75 – 40 % for Rhizoctonia solani and Phymatotrichopsis omnivora respectively. Pathogenicity test revealed R. solani and P. omnivora isolates were highly pathogenic to strawberry plants. The disease severity percentages of R. solani and P. omnivora were 83.0-100% and 55.5-62.0 % respectively. The isolates HRs3 and KPh1 of R. solani and P. omnivora respectively, caused the highest disease were used during this study. The control agents Rizolex and Tachigarin fungicides, Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens have shown high efficiency against R. solani and P. omnivora on culture media (PDA).

The treatment of biocontrol agent’s A. chroococcum and P. fluorescens and the fungicide Rizolex and Preserve Pro showed high efficiency in disease control and enhance plants growth under greenhouse conditions. Disease severities on foliar and root system in A. chroococcum , Rizolex , Preserve Pro and P. fluorescens were 6,66 and 0.00 %, 20.00 and 0.00 %,13.33 and 0.00 % and 13.33and 0.00 % respectively in plants infected with R. solani .Whereas they were 6.66 and 0.00%, 13.33 and 0.00 %,13.33 and 0.00 %,and 13.33 and 0.00 % respectively in plants infected with P. omnivora. This study is the first report of the occurrence of root and stalk rot disease caused by R. solani and P. omnivora on strawberry plants in Iraq.

Keywords Biocontrol agents, Fungicides, Root and Stalk rot, Strawberry.

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Agricultural Export, Oil Export and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Multivariate Co-integration Approach

AbstractSustaining of nation’s economic growth for better footing and outlook is very crucial for the globe of recent, most especially for developing countries like Nigeria. The country as a vivid example of a developing nation is oil based economy, which adopts export promotion policy as the essentialtactic for growth. Yet the nation has not maximized her abundance of resources to aids growth, despite notable economic growth being experienced. In this view, there is an attempt to examine the relationship among agricultural export, oil export and output growth in Nigeria. The causal relationship among the variables was investigated by using times series data for the period between 1981 and 2014. All the macroeconomic variables were found to be stationary. The study revealed that there is significant relationship between economic growth and the agricultural export and oil export. Based on the findings, government of the country is being advised to initiate new and re-defined old policies that will diversify the export base. Likewise, policies that will improveand aid the nation’s domestic production is being encouraged, since long run relationship has been established among the macroeconomic variables.

KeywordsAgriculture Export, Oil Export, Economic Growth, Co-integration.

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Aerobic fitness of young adults born with low birth weight

Abstract

A birth weight that is too small could signal the occurrence of growth disorders or even growth deficiency, as well as a variety of disorders of bodily functions, including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and hypertension. However, so far the relation between birth weight and aerobic capacity has not been studied.

Objective: To compare the aerobic capacity of physically active young adults with different birth weights.

Methods: 159 people born at full term of a single pregnancy (F: 45%, n = 71; M: n = 88), first-year students studying Physical Education. In all cases the subjects’ body composition was estimated, height and weight (BW) was measured, and the maximal oxygen uptake during exercises performed on an ergometer bicycle was established.

Results: the smallest birth body weight (BBW) was 2200 g; 3% of students (n = 5) were born with a BBW of less than 2500 g, and only 2% were born with BBW deficiency (<2 SDS). Physical development of the respondents was similar regardless of their gender and their BBW values, except for women born with small BBW (<1 SDS), whose BW was significantly lower than those born with a higher BBW. A trend of higher incidence of particularly good aerobic capacity in women with small BBW was observed.

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Production of bioethanol from biomass of microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta

Abstract Biofuel production from microalgae biomass appears as a promising long term alternative. Dunaliella tertiolecta is a microalgae with high tolerance to salinity, temperature, and light, making it relatively easy to grow. The aim of this study was to establish a pilot-scale culture to evaluate the biomass yield and bioethanol production. The cell culture of D. tertiolecta was started in 20 ml tubes and escalated to 20 L containers. The biomass yield was 0.153 g L-1 of dry basis (db) and its characterization showed protein (37% db) as major component followed by carbohydrates (35.6), lipids (13% db) and ash (6.5%). The carbohydrate fraction was composed of starch (27.1% db) and fiber (8.5 %) and its neutral sugar characterization yield glucose (91% molar). The main components of the lipid fraction were linolenic and palmitic acids. The biomass was subjected to an acid pre-treatment for the saccharification of complex carbohydrates, and the hydrolyzed biomass was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was possible to produce 0.615 ml g-1 of ethanol. In conclusion, D. tertiolecta has the potential for bioethanol production, making it a promising option for the biofuels future.

Keywords biofuels, microalgae, bioethanol, fermentation, composition.

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Chemical Characteristics of Groundwater and its Suitability for Irrigation purpose in Jombang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract The utilization of groundwater in the agricultural sector in Jombang regency is to meet the needs of irrigation water in sub-optimal land and to supply water for irrigation in the dry season on land that has been irrigated by surface water. The existence and potential of groundwater as a source of irrigation water should be available, not only in the quantity but also with the quality is good. The objectives of this study were to identify chemical characteristics of groundwater and to assess of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose. Twenty five groundwater samples were collected in the study area from bore wells ranging in depth between 61 – 127 m BGL on the confined aquifer. Chemical chracteristics of groundwater samples were analyzed using Piper trilinear diagram based on major ionic concentrations. Base on this analysis, discovered 6 water types of groundwater samples i.e. Ca2+–HCO3 type, mixed Ca2+–Mg2+–SO42– type, mixed Na+–Ca2+–HCO3 type, Ca2+–SO42– type, Na+–SO42– type, and Na+–HCO3 type. To define the quality of groundwater for irrigation, groundwater samples were analyzed by using EC25˚C, SAR, and RSC values. The classification of irrigation water base on EC25˚C and SAR show that most of groundwater samples into C2-S1 class indicating low sodium and medium salinity hazard. On the basis of RSC all groundwater samples are safe for irrigation purpose. All water type of groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for irrigation purpose.

Keywords Chemical characteristics, groundwater, irrigation, Jombang regency.

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Effect of some cover crops and their secondary metabolites on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission by Pseudomonas denitrifiers isolated from chemically fertilized corn farm soil

AbstractUsing a Pseudomonas denitrifying bacterium, which had been isolated from Japanese Andisol corn farm as an active nitrous oxide (N2O) emitter and likely to be missing nosZ gene, we investigated denitrification-regulating activity of some cover crops or green manure plants against this N2O emitter. In the preliminary screening, root exudates from the 10 seedlings of yellow flowering leaf mustard (Brassica juncea) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) showed 50% repression of the N2O emission by an incomplete denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. 05CFM15-6D. When direct extracts of the seedling roots with MeOH were assayed, however, only the seedlings of B. juncea showed a remarkable inhibition of bacterial cell growth and N2O emission at concentration equivalent to 10 seedlings. The root extract from B. juncea equivalent to 2 to 4 seedlings maintained inhibiting activity toward N2O emission, while it did not affect bacterial cell growth. Conversely, water-soluble fraction from aboveground of European small radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus) sprouts showed statistically significant acceleration of N2O emission (P<0.01) with slight but insignificant cell growth activation. As some secondary metabolites are uniquely contained in these cover crops, suppressing or accelerating activity of such phytochemicals in N2O emission was also investigated. Allyl isothiocyanate at 30 µM markedly inhibited N2O emission of the Pseudomonas denitrifier but not suppressed its cell growth. In contrast, methyl isothiocyanate sinigrin, cyanamide, and betanin did not affect on N2O emission of the denitrifier at 150-300 µM.

Keywordscover crops, Brassica juncea, N2O emission, allyl isothiocyanate, Raphanus sativus var. sativus.

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Innovation Adoption of Dairy Goat Farmers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract The objectives of this study were to analyze the structure, level of innovation adoption by dairy goat farmers and to analyze farmer characteristics which affected to adoption rate. The study was conducted in Sleman, Yogyakarta Province. The number of respondents were 162 dairy goat farmers, who were members of of farmer group in 6 groups. The structure adoption was analyze by descriptive while the relaionship between farmer characteristics and adoption rate was analyze by correlation and multiple linear regression. The results showed that farmers received innovation from the government, academic institution and other farmers. Farmers choose speech, group discussion and demonstration as the method of extension service and preferred to choose leaflets, film photograph, magazine and television as media for communication. The member of farmers group expected that innovation could improve their livestock productivity. The level of adoption was affected significantly by farmers experience and the number of goat ownership (P<0.01). the coefficient of determination of 0.176 indicated that 17.6% of variance was influenced by farmers experience and the number of goat ownership while 82% was affected by other factors.

Keywords adoption, innovation, farmer group, dairy goat farmer.

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Evapotranspiration partitioning components in an irrigated winter wheat field: A combined isotopic and micrometeorologic approach

Abstract The arid and semi-arid regions constitute roughly one third of the total earth’s surface. In these regions water scarcity is one of the main limiting factors for economic growth. The impact of such water scarcity is amplified by inefficient irrigation practices, especially since about 85% of available water is used for irrigation in these regions. Therefore, a sound and efficient irrigation practice is an important step for achieving sustainable management of water resources in these regions. In this regard, a better understanding of the water balance is essential to explore water-saving techniques. In the context CRP project, experimental setups were conceived to monitor seasonal water consumption on the wheat crop irrigated by flood irrigation in Sidi Rahal station (middle of morocco. The partitioning of evapotranspiration compounds shows that transpiration dominates the evaporation about 68 % for three days (22, 23 and 24 February 2012). In addition the wheat absorbs the soil water from 10 cm to 20 cm (90%) at this growing stage according to the multiple-source mass balance assessment.

Keywords Evapotranspiration partitioning, stables isotopes, wheat, flood irrigation.

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GC-MS and FTIR analysis of bio-oil obtained from freshwater algae (spirogyra) collected from Freshwater

Abstract Algae are gaining broad consideration as a substitute renewable source of biomass for the manufacture of bioethanol, due to this reason categorized under the “third generation biofuels” .İn this work, GC-MS analysis and FTIR has been done of bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of Freshwater Algae( Spirogyra ) in this paper we have shown a simple process of converting biomass of fresh water algae to bio-oil through pyrolysis and explained it with the help of graphs and tables. Pyrolysis is a thermal process for converting various biomasses , residues and wastes to produce high-energy-density fuels (bio-oil, biochar). The bio-oil was obtained in two step pyrolysis in which temperature of the system kept 25ºC and then increased up to 650ºC time by time. After pyrolysis these fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and FTIR which show different peaks and data of different compounds and functional groups present in this bio-oil

Keywords Biomass, Bio-oil, Freshwater Algae, Pyrolysis, GC-MS, FTIR

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The Substitution of Cereal Production Factors: DEA-based Approach

Abstract The elasticities of substitution are derived from the optimal slack variables obtained from the additive models which are based on the DEA method. Measuring the substitutability of cereal production factors in the study area allows us to see the existence of substitutability between the land and other production factors as well as between mechanization and other inputs except the hands artwork. The estimated elasticities of substitution between irrigation water and other inputs allow us to conclude that the irrigation water and labor are substitutable.

Keywords Nonparametric approach, efficiency borders, marginal rate of substitution, elasticities of substitution.

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Responses of three soybean cultivars exposed to UV-B radiation

Abstract To understand the responses of various soybean (Glycine max) cultivars to ultraviolet-B, Dongnong 42, Zhonghuang 57 and Jin 36 were cultured either under UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ / m-2 UV-B) or without UV-B for 25 days. Under UV-B irradiation, significant difference were observed in plant height, nodes length, contents of soluble sugar, proline, protein, flavionoids, GSH, ASA, relative content of anthocyanins, also the emzymes activities of APX ,SOD and GR. The lowest plant height was presented in Jin 36, followed Zhonghuang 57 and Dongnong 42. The node length of plant decreased from the first node to the fourth one, and the maximal reduction was observed in Jin 36. Contents of protein, flavionoids, GSH, ASA and anthocyanins as well as emzyme activities of APX, SOD and GR significantly increased under UV-B irradiation where content of protein and activities of emzyme APX, SOD and GR were higher in Zhonghuang 57 than those in Dongnong 42 and Jin 36; higher GSH, ASA, flavonoids, as well as the anthocyanins were showed in Donghong 42. Increased proline content was observed in the three cultivars upon UV-B (p<0.05) where Zhonghuang 57 >Dongnong 42 > Jin36; for the soluble sugar content, the order was Zhongnong 57>Jin 36>Dongnong 42 (p<0.05). Various soybean cultivars showed varied physiological responses upon UV-B.

Keywords UV-B, soybean, cultivars, physiological characters, response.

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Visible light assisted photo catalytic degradation of 2, 4- dinitrophenol and 2, 4, 6- trinitrophenol using H2O2 sensitized BiVO4

Abstract 2, 4-dinitrophenol and 2, 4, 6- trinitrophenol were successfully photodegraded using visible light active monoclinic BiVO4 as photocatalyst. 10ppm of dinitrophenol is photodegraded using 50mg BiVO4 under irradiation for 3h. 10ppm trinitrophenol is photodegraded using 100mg BiVO4 under irradiation for 3h. Ease of photodegradation of DNP and TNP varied in the order DNP > TNP for the same amount of photocatalyst. Photoluminescence studies confirmed the formation of ·OH free radicals due to irradiation. Synergetic effect is noticed between BiVO4 and H2O2.

Keywords Photocatalysis, 2, 4- dinitrophenol, 2, 4, 6- trinitrophenol, BiVO4, Picric acid.

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