Abstract— In recent years, reuse and recycling has taken on an increasingly important role in our society. As a result, there has been an increase in research and development of sustainable technologies. The experience acquired by the CRESCA team in the study of the revaluation of orange peels and lemon have allowed him to have a vision of this by-product as a raw material that, with the opportune treatments, can be origin of products of high added value. In this sense, very satisfactory results have been achieved for different fields of application such as:
- Agricultural: As water adsorbents, obtaining better results than conventional products (silica gel).
- Wine: As an alternative wine clarifier to products currently used (gelatin, potato protein, egg albumin, etc.)
- Treatment of wastewater with high metallic load: As heavy metal adsorbents (Ni, Cu, Pb, etc.)
- Wastewater Treatment of textile industry: as adsorbent of organic dyes.
This paper proposes the use of orange peel and lemon, after being subjected to a process physicochemical, as clarifiers of wine and compared the results with those obtained with vegetable protein, gelatin and bentonite.
Keywords— absorption, lemon, orange.
Modeling of Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Variation in Top and Deep Soils with varied Aggregate Size under Climate Change of Sub-tropical India: A Review
Abstract— The effects of tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient content of soil aggregates can vary spatially and temporally, and for different soil types and cropping systems. Surface soil (0–15 cm) was fractionated into aggregate sizes (>4.76 mm, 4.76–2.00 mm, 2.00–1.00 mm, 1.00–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.053 mm, <0.053 mm) under two tillage regimes. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Tillage significantly reduced the proportion of macro-aggregate fractions (>2.00 mm) and thus aggregate stability was reduced by 35% compared with RNT, indicating that tillage practices led to soil structural change for this subtropical soil. Soil organic C decreased with increasing soil depth but was greater under tree than others and was mainly concentrated in the topsoil layer (0–20 cm). In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. The highest SOC was in the 1.00–0.25 mm fraction, while the lowest SOC was in micro-aggregate (<0.025 mm) and silt + clay (<0.053 mm) fractions and CT, respectively. Tillage did not influence the patterns in SOC across aggregates but did change the aggregate-size distribution, indicating that tillage affected soil fertility primarily by changing soil structure. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in coniferous forests (CF) than in broad-leaved forests (BF) at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. The sum of macro-aggregate contributing rates for clay-humus stability of soil organic C (SOC) was significantly superior to that of the micro-aggregates. Water-stable aggregates increased by 34.5% in the CA with residue retention treatment, effectively improving the soil structure. Furthermore, 0.25–1.00 and 1–2mm aggregates had the highest SOC microbial biomass storage and responded rapidly to the various tillage treatments. Greater proportion of micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates in the plots under NT–NT compared with CT–CT was also observed in the surface layer only. Plots under NT–NT had about 10% higher coarse (250–2000 μm) intra-aggregate particulate organic matter-C (iPOM–C) within >2000 μm sand free aggregates in the 0- to 5-cm soil layer compared with CT–CT plots. The fine (53–250 μm) iPOM–C within the 250- to 2000-μm aggregates was also higher in the continuous NT plots compared with CT within both >2000 and 250 to 2000 μm sand free aggregate size classes in that soil layer.
Keywords— Aggregates sizes, aggregate stability, soil depth, macro-aggregates, micro-aggregates, fractionation, particulate organic carbon.
Genotypic differences of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as a factor of biological intensification of agroecosystems
Abstract— Unfavorable environmental conditions limit the continued yield increases of modern commercial cultivars and hybrids of agricultural plants in the intensive agroecosystems. Therefore, the genotypic differences in resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) are the focus of our long-term studies (2010 – 2018). The soybean breeding lines, collection varieties and commercial cultivars are investigated. The pathogens of viral diseases, namely, the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and the Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) have been identified. The soybean genotypes having one of such dominant genes as Rsv1, Rsv1t or Rsv1y (locus Rsv1) proved to be resistant to local strains of SMV. The genotypes with a relatively high level of the yield and resistance to viral diseases and downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica (Naum.) Syd.) are detected. Artificial selection of soybean genotypes for cold tolerance during the seed germination and seedling development period should be carried out taking into account the effect of early planting onto yield components and other plant morphological traits. Soybean yields, as a result of genotype-environment interactions, and the addressed introduction of commercial cultivars into specific agroecosystems are discussed. Selected genotypes can be used in agronomic practice and also as germplasm in breeding of the new high-yielding soybean cultivars with a good adaptability to soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine.
Keywords— addressed cultivars, cold tolerance, downy mildew, soybean viruses, yields.
The Cation Exchange Capacity, pH of Soil in Mwogo Marshland, and the Rice Plantation in Huye District -Rwanda
Abstract— Agriculture is a major component of Rwanda’s national economy. In 2017, agriculture contributed 33% to the country’s GDP. About 66.46 % of population, of which 50.9 % are women, depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for living. The average arable surface area available is about 0.60 ha per household use. This causes overexploitation of available land which is often accompanied by agricultural malpractices with disastrous consequences on land resources and on environment in general. Given the limited availability of arable land for agriculture and the constantly growing food requirements of the population, ensuring food security poses a major challenge. This present study aimed at investigating the cation exchange capacity and pH of soil of Mwogo Marshaland in order to resolving the problem of soil fertility of Mwogo marshland by looking the method for increasing its fertility and then the problem of low rice production. By using soil Auger, samples were taken randomly in the field where each sample of soil was used in laboratory to determine both pH and Cation Exchange Capacity, in each blocks namely Block du Nord and Block du Sud. During this study the laboratory results and laboratory analysis has shown that marshland soil is very acidity with pHkcl is 4.37, Ph water with a weak cation exchange capacity. These findings support the previous studies showing that the soils with those properties need particular management; like liming, addition of organic matter, and so on, in order to adjust its chemical properties.
Keywords— Soil, chemical properties, rice production.
Forage plants in Daloa city livestock market: specific diversity, market practices and economic land
Abstract— The sale of forage is little known to the majority of people in Côte d’Ivoire. The target of the study is to identify the forage species marketed in the livestock markets of Daloa and to estimate the financial profitability of this activity in the socio-economic life of the actors of the sector. Semi-structured surveys were conducted from September to December 2018 among 45 vendors in the forage marketing chain. Nine forage species divided into five genera and four families were identified. The study showed that these plants come from the non-agglomerated areas of the city, fallows and old plantations. The main species are f forage Moraceae, especially Ficus exasperata, highly sought after by customers. The average selling price of a forage species boot is around 100 to 150 FCFA. The estimated average daily financial income per player is FCFA 750 and varies between 18,750 to FCFA 37,500 per month for a monthly average of FCFA 26,125 and oscillate between 225,000 to FCFA 450,000 for an annual average of 313,500 FCFA. However, although the harvesting and sale of forage trees is a pathway generating substantial income, it is a source of degradation of plant formations already overexploited in Côte d’Ivoire.
Keywords— Forage plants, livestock markets, financial income, actors, Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire.