IJOER: April 2017

Engineering journal had published its volume-3, issue-4, April 2017 Issue with AD Publications

Mycelium-bound lipase production of immobilized whole cell from a wild-type Penicilium citrinum strain

Abstract Pencillium citrinum whole cell was cultivated and immobilized in a low cost support aiming to be used as an active and stable biocatalyst for modification of oil and fats. PUF (polyurethane foam) coated in 6mm was used as support and the immobilization occurred as a natural consequence of cell growth. Olive oil was the mycelium-bound lipase inductor and the production was optimized by statistical analysis of pH and temperature effects in culture broth. Immobilized whole cell was characterized as a natural immobilized lipase and all the assays were made using olive oil hydrolysis. The mycelium-bound lipase production was improved by adjustment the culture broth to pH 7.5 and 35°C of incubation temperature. The SEM micrographs showed the entangled cells morphology and a high adhesion in support matrix. Biochemical characterization revealed maximum values of lipase activity in pH 8 and 40°C and a half-life time at 60°C was 2.2h. Results from kinetics study indicated the biocatalyst follow the Michaelis-Menten kinetic. The potential catalytic of immobilized whole cells was assessed in soybean oil hydrolysis and 55.7% of degree of hydrolysis was attained in 12h.

Keywords whole cell, mycelium-bound lipase, immobilization, hydrolysis, oil.

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Correlation between Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Destructive Testing (DT) of Concrete for Linear, Quadratic and Cubic Relation

Abstract This work present a correlation and comparison between Non- Destructive test (Rebound Hammer) & Destructive test of testing the compressive strength of concrete cubes for Linear, Quadratic & Cubic Relation. Concrete cubes of 150mm×150mm×150mm were cast of M-20, M-25, M-30 and M-35 grades and each grade cured for 7days, 14days and 28days. A total 120 cubes were cast. When analyses were carried out, there are a relation between the results of rebound number obtained from rebound hammer and compressive strength obtained from compression machine. These results i.e. rebound number and compressive strength value of cubes M-20, M-25, M-30 and M-35 grades were correlate and compared with Linear, Quadratic & Cubic Equation and checked from which equations among these three gives a more accurate results with compressive strength. After analyses it was found that among three of them predicted strength of cube only the linear and quadratic equation gave more accurate relationships with compressive strength of concrete. And at the end it also gave statistical analysis of the results which shows that there were a significant difference between the rebound number and compressive strength.

Keywords Concrete, Compressive Strength, Destructive Testing (DT), NON-Destructive Testing (NDT), Correlation.

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A Novel Approach to Communicate with Deaf Dumb and Blind Person

Abstract In day to day life communication is major issue for deaf, dumb people and for Blind person it is difficult to take notes of particular things. So, for removing the barrier of communication a glove is designed for mute people with preloaded messages and a Braille embosser for Blind person to read notes in Braille language.

The main objective of this paper is to design a portable and reasonably sized Device that is easy to use. The design for this Device was made keeping in mind all different kind of disabilities. This paper is valuable to a disable person who is having difficulty in communicating with others. The hardware implemented in this paper can be used remotely to give notes to blind by imprinting on Braille Embosser. To implement this paper the main components are PIC18F886, APR33A3, Bluetooth Transceiver HC-05, Flex Sensor, Servo motors SG-90.

Keywords— Bluetooth, Braille Embosser, Glove, LCD, PIC.

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An Efficient Voltage and Frequency Division Methods for Multiprecision Multiplier on FPGA

Abstract In this paper, we present a reconfigurable multiprecision(MP) multiplier that contains variable precision ,parallel processing, Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS)and dedicated MP operands scheduling to provide desired performance for various operating conditions. The proposed reconfigurable multiplier works independent smaller precision also it works in parallel to perform higher precision multiplications according to conditions or user requirements of voltage or frequency the dynamic voltage/frequency scaling unit configures to works at proper precision and frequency. In this paper we design a multiplier circuit that consumes less power and reduces area overhead by parallel processing .for this instead of using 16bit or 32bit operands we used single 8bit or twin parallel bit multiplication operation . in multipresicion multiplier small multiplications causes complex structures which results in unwanted signal generation and increases complexity of circuitary ,for this we used 8bit multiplier for 16 bit and 32bit multiplication hence to reduce power consumption and acconding to runtime workload we combine multiprecision multiplier with dynamic voltage scaling(DVS).The DVS technique consists look up tables(LUT) and on chip critical path replica approach .The LUT allows the supply voltage according to the voltage frequency relationship stored in LUT.

Keywords Multiprecision, Reconfigurable.

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Comparison of Self Compacting Concrete (SSC) containing Fly Ash, Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag

Abstract This research work includes the comparison of compressive strength of two different mineral admixtures namely Fly ash and blast furnace slag. It also comprises of comparison of workability of both the mineral admixtures. This is obtained by performing slump test, L box test, U box test and T50 test. The method adopted to perform the workability is by replacing 30%, 40% and 50% of Portland cement with the particular mineral admixture and then compared. The influence of these mineral admixtures on the properties of these mixtures is also investigated. The mix proportion is made as per the guidelines of European federation of contractors and producers for structure. The mixture comprises of Ordinary Portland cement (grade 43). Local rivers were used to obtain the sand lying under zone 2 was used. The specific gravity of the sand is kept 2.65 and that of cement 3.15. Coarse aggregates of nominal size of size 12.5mm conforming IS 383-1970 were used. The specific gravity of coarse aggregate being 2.77. The size of the coarse aggregate is to be checked in order to check that it does not cause a blocking effect in self compacting concrete. In case of self compacting concrete the ratio of coarse aggregate is much lower than that in case of ordinary Portland cement. Fine aggregate ratio in self compacting concrete is kept higher in comparison to Ordinary Portland cement so that flowing viscosity is high and the stability of the mixture is maintained and also bleeding is kept at bay and segregation of coarse material is also avoided (Boukendakdji et al., 2009). The specific gravity of the sand is kept 2.65 and that of cement 3.15 . Fly ash being industrial by product was obtained from Uttarakhand Power Corporation, Dehradun whereas Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) was obtained from local vendors for cheap prices.

From this view point it can be incorporated that the cost of self compacting concrete can be considerably reduced by replacing Portland cement with industrial by-products and also reducing the amounts of chemical admixtures and hence their cost.

Keywords: Fly ash, Ground granulated blast furnace slag, Ordinary Portland cement, self compacting concrete.

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Toxigenic Molds in Different Grains from Albania

AbstractMycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds, produced by the organism under certain stress conditions, such as drough and high temperatures in field, or high humidity levels in storage facilities. It is well known that their presence may result in hazardous implications in the humans and animals health. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of mycotoxigenic moulds in cereals harvested in Albania. Microbiological evaluation was accomplished in different media for moulds. Despite the fact that method is conventional, presenting approximate values, it helps to a judgement on the mycotoxigenic molds and other microorganisms.

The concentration of microorganisms varied 0.5-260 x 10³ cfu/g in wheat and 80-200 x 104 cfu/g in maize. After the identification and classification was found presence of mainly Ascomycete classes; especially Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium species. In conlusion, after comparing the finding with interantional standards was concluded that wheat comodity was within standards, while some of maize samples passed the allowed levels.

KeywordsAlbania, Maize, Toxigenic molds, Wheat.

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The Production Potential of the Olive Oil from Native Cultivars in Albania

Abstract Albania has an annual production capacity of ca. 50 000 tons of olive fruits and 6000 tons of olive oil. The corresponding cultivation area covers 41000 ha, distributed over 90 000 small farms. In total, olive trees area covers 6.3% of the total arable land. This paper, presents the characterizes the fatty acid profile and total phenolic content of 6 olive varieties, namely, Kalinjot, Ulli i bardhe Tirana (Bianco di Tirana), Karren, Nisiot, Kotruvs, and Kokerrmadh Berati, all from the same harvesting period.

Results on fatty acid (FA) profiles exhibit a variation in concentration of oleic acid, 71.53 ± 0.02% (Kotruvs) to 80.07 ± 0.04% (Nisiot). The content of linoleic acid varies from 4.10 ± 0.00% (Nisiot) to 9.31 ± 0.01% (Kotruvs), whereas the content of linolenic acid varies from 0.45 ± 0.01% (Karren) to 0.72 ± 0.02% (Kalinjot). Analysed OO from six olive varieties revealed moderate levels of palmitic acid, between 9.94 ± 0.01% (Nisiot) to 12.21 ± 0.01% (Kotruvs). From a nutritional point of view, it is worth noticing that the Nisiot variety has an n-6/n-3 ratio of 8.11, while the Karren 18.72.

The total phenolic content for the studied olive cultivars varied from 89.74 ± 5.47 (Karren) to 445.03 ± 16.83 mg/kg olive oil (Ulli i bardhe Tirana); such variation may reflects different antioxidant capacity among olive cultivars.

Keywords— Native Olive Cultivars; Kalinjot; Ulli i Bardhe Tirana, Kokerrmadh Berati, Nisiot, Fatty acid, Polyphenol content.

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Probabilistic Completion Time in Project Scheduling

AbstractThere are two common used methods to find the minimum completion time for a project scheduling. These methods are Critical Path Method (CPM) and Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT). In CPM, a network diagram, which is Activity on Node (AON), is drawn and the slack time for every activity is calculated such that the project’s critical path could be found. It is important that the critical path can suggest the shortest possible completion time. On the other hand, PERT concerns on uncertainty and risk in a project. It has three time estimates, which are optimistic, pessimistic and most likely, and all the time estimates mentioned follows the beta distribution. Besides, the probability in completing the project within certain duration is calculated by using the standard normal distribution. As the risk cannot be avoided in a project, it is important to keep track on any changes and to minimize the completion time for a project. Both of the methods are used to calculate the shortest possible completion time, slack and critical path. The difference between these methods is CPM has only one determined time estimate, while PERT has three time estimates, which shows the uncertainty in the duration of an activity in a project. For illustration, the data used for the construction of a three-room house was studied. The results show that the minimum completion time for the project is 44 days with a success probability 0.91. In conclusion, CPM and PERT are practical tool in the project scheduling.

KeywordsActivity on Node, Critical Path Method, Program Evaluation Review Technique, Probabilistic Completion Time, Slack Time.

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Investigation on Performance of Jia Bharali River Bank Protection Measure Using Geotextile Bags

Abstract River bank erosion is one of the major natural disasters being faced by the state of Assam, located in the North-eastern part of India. With the increasing popularity of geotextile materials in construction industry several pilot projects to control bank erosion of major rivers of Assam have recently been executed with the application of geotextile bags, geotextile tubes. But very little scientific study on the post-construction performance of these works is available. In this paper the findings of a study on the post construction performance of one of these recently completed bank protection works is presented. In order to ascertain the erodibility of the bank soil characterisation of geotechnical properties of the bank soil is carried out. The bore log obtained by adopting a simplified method of boring suitable for this investigation is presented along with detailed laboratory test results and analysis. The change in river flow pattern near the bank after installation of the bank protection work and the resultant siltation is studied in this work. In order to predict progressive development of sand bar due to the induced siltation during the first 1 year after installation of the protection work the siltation area is surveyed and the contours are prepared. The resultant flow pattern is reasonably determined from the siltation area contours. Satellite images of the study area for a period of 3 years after installation of the protection work are analysed and presented before arriving at a final conclusion on the performance of the protection measure.

Keywords Jia Bharali, Geotextile Bag, erodibility, river sand.

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Quantitative Study of Hydration of PPC-FA Based using Powder X-Ray Diffraction

Abstract Pozzolana is the most commonly used mineral in cement industry. Pozzolana doesn’t possess cementitious property on its own but derives its strength by reacting in the presence of moisture with calcium hydroxide formed as a result of hydration. The pozzolanic reaction is slow and required high pH and calcium ion content. This paper deals with study the PPC-FA based cement conforming to IS 1489 Part 1:2015. The LSM, AR, SR, Degree of sulphurization, Burnability Index, Burnability Factor and Percentage Liquid is obtained for the cement using X-Ray diffraction analysis. The hydration of the cement is also studied for 1 day,3 days,7 days,14 days,21 days,28 days and 56 days of curing. The samples for initial setting and final setting of cement obtained as per IS 4031 Part 5:1988 were also analysed for X-Ray diffraction analysis. The paper presents a procedure for sample preparation, X-Ray analysis of cement and cement slurries, identification of phases in cement, identification of silicate hydrates, AFm and AFt phases, percentage variation of these phases and rate of change. The changes in the phases occurring are checked by performing physical tests on cement and cement mortar cubes.

Keywords pH, LSM, AR, SR, AFm, Aft, X-Ray diffraction.

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