Productive behavior of cultivars and banana genotype originating from ‘Prata Anã’, Irrigated and non irrigated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Abstract— The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative and productive behavior of banana cultivars Prata Catarina and PrataGorutuba, from clonal selection in cultivars of Prata-Anã and BRS Maravilha and PA 94-01, obtained through crosses of the genotype SH 31-42 with Prat-Anã and Prata Catarina, respectively. The experiment was conducted in Bambuí under drip irrigation and in Iaci, without irrigation. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used for each cultivar and plots with ten plants, spacing 3.0 x 2.8 m (1190 plants / hectare). The vegetative behavior was evaluated through the plant height (m) at the time of the bunch issue and the production cycle, that is, the period between planting and harvesting of the mother, daughter and granddaughter plants. The productive behavior was evaluated by bunch weight (kg) and fruit (g) and number of fruits per bunch and yield (kg / ha / year). The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tuckey Test at 5% probability. The ‘BRS Maravilha’ showed the highest height of the plant, both in Bambuí and in Ijaci. The other cultivars did not differ in height. PA 94-01 was earlier in both locations, with a production cycle about one month less than the other cultivars. The cultivar BRS Maravilha and PA 94-01 surpassed the others by weight of the bunch and the fruits, number of fruits per bunch and yield in the two localities, and in Bambuí was significantly higher than in Ijaci, thus showing the expressive effect of irrigation. The PA 94-01, due to its good productivity, fruit size, appearance, taste and precocity can become a better option for the producers compared to the other cultivars.
Towards Attainment of Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction among Rural Farmers: Whither Farm Waste Utilization?
Abstract— The study investigated potential of farm wastes’ utilization for attaining sustainable livelihoods and reducing poverty among rural dwellers in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, socioeconomic attributes of the respondents were described and significant determinants of farm waste utilization identified. Primary data were collected using interview schedule collected from 364 respondents sampled for the study through multi stage procedure. Frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to describe data collected. Rational choice theory and theory of planned behaviour were used to provide theoretical underpinning for the study. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify significant determinants of farm waste utilization. Result showed that cassava and yam peels, maize stalks and cobs, cowpea husk, palm kernel shell, empty palm fruit bunch, cocoa pods, poultry droppings, sheep and goat faeces were amongst farm wastes with economic potentials in the study area. Result of regression analysis showed that income (t = 2.401), perception about farm waste items (t = 4.458), perceived behavioral control (t = 2.534) and attitude towards farm waste utilization (t = 2.732) positively and significantly contributed to extent of farm waste utilization, while total farm size (t = 1.988) and years spent on formal education (t = 2.024) positively and significantly contributed to extent of farm waste utilization at p ≤ 0.05. However, information sources (t = -2.732) and knowledge about farm waste utilization potentials (t = -2.314) significantly but negatively influenced farm waste utilization p ≤ 0.05, respectively. It was concluded that varieties of farm waste items with good economic potentials for utilization abound in the study area. In order to empower rural dwellers economically thereby enhancing their livelihoods and ameliorating their poverty condition, paying attention to the significant determinants of waste utilization identified is recommended.
Application of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen-removal bacteria, poly-phosphate bacteria and water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for wastewater treatment of My Tho rice-noodle factories, Tien Giang province, Vietnam
Abstract— Rice-noodle wastewater represents a serious problem regarding environmental degradation and human health protection. The aim of the study was to create the application of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen-removal bacteria, poly-phosphate bacteria and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for wastewater treatment of My Tho rice noodle factories, Tien Giang province, Vietnam in order to get an insight into number of entities that discharge polluted water into environment. An experiment was carried out with containers having different capacities from 100-mL, 1-L, 10-L, 100-L and 1000-L and 3 replications to select best strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria, heterotrophic nitrogen bacteria, poly-P bacteria and water-hyacinth for removing toxic element to wastewater before releasing to river/canal. Application of two bioflocculant-producing bacterial strains PO.01.C and PRO.03.B (protein and polysaccharide) into rice-noodle wastewater, aeration in 3 hours, held on 21 hours, supernatant moved to other container, adding heterotrophic nitrogen removal bacterial strain and poly-P. strain 064.B, aeration 8 hr/24hr during 7 days and wastewaters were transferred other containers containing water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in 2 days, the results recorded that pH of wastewater increased from 4.68 to 6.13, TSS and BOD5 concentration of wastewater reduced from 369 and 1200 mg/L to 17 and 23 mg/L, respectively. TKN and TP decreased from 45 and 6.3 mg/L to 7.57 and 4.56 mg/L, respectively. All targets reached to 40/2011 standard / Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment of Vietnam.
Effect of Compost, NPK and Plant Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Growth and Yield of Three Vegetables cultivated on Arenosols
Abstract — Three field studies were conducted to determine the effects of compost, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and NPK on growth and yield of three vegetables. Two PGPR strains (Nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Phosphate-solubilizing Bacillus subtilis) supplemented into compost and bacterial liquid were added into compost during vegetable cultivation, chemical fertilizer (100 N – 80 P2O5 – 40 K2O) and control (non inoculation). The study revealed that compost inoculated with PGPRs can replace 50% chemical fertilizer in three vegetables cultivation, farmers but also saved 50 N – 40 P2O5 – 20 K2O not only minimized environmental pollution.
Abstract— In contrast to most animals, plants are sessile organisms that they have not a circulatory system. So they have an innate immune system in each cell. In fact interaction between plants and their pathogens is based on systemic signaling capability from infection sites. In plant pathogen interaction sometimes pathogens produce elicitor and sometimes produce effector. On this basis, resistance in plants is divided to host and non host. On the other hand the plant responses depend not only on the recognition mechanisms but also very much on the biology of the interactions and genetic characteristics of plants and their pathogens. Gene – for – gene and the matching allel are two basic models for explanting of genetic basis of interaction between plants and their pathogens.