IJOEAR : May 2016

Agriculture Research Journal

Water Pollution and its Effect on Water Consumption in Akure

Abstract This research focuses primarily on the causes, consequences and ways of mitigating the ongoing fresh water pollution problems among Akure communities. Surface water quality of River Ala, which cut across the town of Akure was assessed and three locations (3) were chosen spatially to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities capable of changing the quality of river water. Water samples were analyzed for physio-chemical parameters and it was observed that variations exists in the quality of the sampled waters and impaired to different degrees using WHO drinking water standards for the selected parameters. Leo road (Ala 3) has the highest dissolved solids, which shows that the dumping of waste to the water bodies might have caused the higher occurrence; the PH was low in Ala 3 and high in Ala 1 (Oke-Ijebu) with 6.9 and 7.4 respectively. The water is coloured, total alkalinity total hardness, iron and turbidity were found to be above the WHO standard, therefore not suitable for domestic use.

KeywordsRiver Ala, Water Pollution, Waste, Water Quality, Domestic Purposes.

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The Link between Renewable Fuel Mandate and Natural Rubber Market in Malaysia: A Search for A Conceptual Framework

Abstract Lately, fluctuation in world crude oil prices and increasing in biofuel demand have encourages the uses of biodiesel in worldwide. Malaysia is one of the countries that using renewable materials from crude palm oil. As the main feedstock for biodiesel, the implementation of biodiesel blend mandate in Malaysia is expected to interrupt the natural rubber industry due to the competition of land between oil palm and natural rubber. Previously, there was no any relationship between renewable energy particularly biodiesel to be linked with the natural rubber market. The implementation of B5 mandate in Malaysia will added a new dimension in the Malaysian natural rubber market. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the conceptual framework in examining the effect of biodiesel blend mandate on Malaysian natural rubber market. Malaysia natural rubber and palm oil market model been developed where consist of production, import, domestic consumption, export, domestic price and world price equations. The model was closed using domestic and world stock identity.

Keywords Conceptual framework, Renewable Fuel Mandate, Malaysian natural rubber market, Palm oil market.

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Acceleration of Lead Phytostabilization by Maize (Zea mays) in Association with Gliricidiasepium Biomass

Abstract Soil where shooting practices are conducted is extremely contaminated with heavy metals, exclusively by Pb, due to the bullets and bullet fragments. These extreme concentrations of Pb, generate an unfavourable surroundings for agriculture and human health through phytoaccumulation. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of particular bio-amendment, phytostabilization on the reduction of bioavailable Pb in such contaminated soil. Biomass (BM) produced from Gliricidiasepium was used to see its ability to be used in soil remediation together with Maize (Zea mays) as phytostabilizer. A pot experiment was conducted with Maizeby adding BM at three different percentages, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w). Soil without amendments served as the control and arranged in a complete randomized design. By maize, translocation rate of heavy metals into crop were determined. After sixth week, grown maize were harvested and analyzed followed by digestion with con.HNO3. The most significant immobilization (p<0.05) was indicated by treatment 5% BM for Pb than control. Metal translocation towards plant decreased with increasing application rate of soil amendment,Gliricidia woody BM. Determination of Plant factor (PF) and Translocation factor (TF) indicates that PF>TF in maize. For the treatment 5% BM, PF and TF for Pb are 1.22 and 0.15 respectively. Thereby maize can be considered as a potential phytostabilizer. At the same time efficiency of phytostabilizing nature of maizecan increase together with the application of soil amendment – BM.

Keywords Amendment, Biomass, Immobilization, Phytostabilizer, Translocation factor.

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Dynamic of bruchid egg-laying in cowpea-based cropping systems: importance for determining an optimal release period of the oophagous parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Abstract In West Africa, the pods of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., are often infested with eggs of the main bruchid species, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and Bruchidius atrolineatus Pic in the fields resulting in significant post-harvest losses. An experiment was carried out from 2010 to 2011, at Gampela in central Burkina Faso, to identify the optimal period of the oophagous parasitoid (Uscana lariophaga Stef.) releases in cowpea –based intercropping systems, in order to minimize or supress the initial infestation of cowpea pods. During both years of study a relatively low number of bruchid eggs was noticed on the pods (60-130 eggs/100 pods). However, there was significantly a larger number of eggs laid in monocrops in comparison to intercrops. Natural global parasitism of bruchid eggs by Uscana lariophaga ranged 20-45% but was significantly higher in intercrops where parasitism peaks >50% were sometimes reached. Comparative analysis of bruchid egg laying and their parasitism showed that cowpea infestation gradually increased whereas parasitism decreased. Given these results we discuss and suggest that cowpea be produced in millet intercropping systems and combined with releases of U lariophaga in the fields specifically during cowpea pod setting.

Keywords Bruchid egg laying dynamic; Cowpea, Egg parasitism, Intercropping, Parasitoid releases.

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Analysis of Herbicide Atrazine and Its Degradation Products in Agricultural Soil by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography‒Mass spectrometry

Abstract A novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry (UPLC‒MS) method was developed for the determination of herbicide atrazine (ATR) and its principal metabolites namely deisopropylatrazine (DIA), deethylatrazine (DEA) and hydroxyatrazine (HA) in soils. The limit of detection ranged from 0.06 μg kg‒1 (DEA) to 0.25 μg kg‒1 (HA). Recoveries for the four target analytes at three spiked levels ranged from 73.2 to 110% with relative standard deviation of 5.1‒8.1%. In the cases of the three control soil samples spiked with ATR were treated for 60d, the sum content of the three degraded products is 3, 6.4, and 6.8 times greater than ATR residue, respectively. Analyzing 80 soil samples from four counties evaluated this method. ATR of 1.1‒125 μg kg‒1 in 80 of 80 samples, ATR of 0.5‒7.8 μg kg‒1 in 39 of 80 samples, and DIA of 0.5 and 0.6 μg kg‒1 in 2 of 80 samples were found. The proposed method can ensure the rapid and highly sensitive analysis of atrazine and its degradation products in soil, and can provide a direction for proper application of atrazine and a base for evaluating their hazards to the environment.

Keywords Atrazine residue, degradation products, soil, ultra performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry.

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Assessment of Zinc and Copper Status of Fadama Soils In Borgu Local Government Area, Niger State

Abstract The status of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) of fadama soils under cultivation at Borgu Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples were purposely collected from three extension blocks, namely; Wawa, Babana and Goffanti. Particle size distribution of the soils showed sandy loam texture. The soils pH were either slightly acidic or neutral with a range between 6.05 and 6.93. The level of Organic Carbon (OC) ranged between low and medium, total nitrogen were rated high, available phosphorus were low while exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) were all rated high. Though soil content of Zn and Cu were very low, values were not significantly (P<0.05) different for all locations. The mean values for Zn ranged between 0.496 and 0.592 mg/kg, while Cu ranged between 0.550 and 0.945 mg/kg. This result implies that soil amendments in the form of organic manure and/or supplement of Zn and Cu would enhance nutrient availability for optimum yields of crops for the resource-poor farmers in the study area.

Keywords Zinc, Copper, Fadama, soil fertility, Borgu.

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Analysis of Sustainablity patterns of stair stepped villages in northwest Iran Case study: Totakhaneh, the wonderful village

Abstract Various factors impact on residential complexes as well as villages. These are called economic, sociocultural and environmental factors. Sustainable residential complexes have balanced among these factors. This paper is studying the stair stepped village named Totakhaneh located in east Azerbaijan, Iran. The paper is to answer the question – are mentioned factors balanced in formation process of village texture? Is Totakhaneh a sustainable residential complex? The investigation method is descriptive-analytic; data and information collected through fieldwork and library study. Finally, it was concluded that although nature has meaningfully affected on the formation of the village; however sociocultural and livelihood issues have been influential on major and minor decision-making processes and the village has been assumed a sustainable residential complex before accession to the modern life.

Keywords sustainability, village, rural housing, sustainable residential complexes, Bonab.

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Toxic Effect of Textile Mill Effluent on Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Walp.

Abstract The aim of the present investigation was to assess the suitability of textile mill effluent (TME) (untreated) at different concentrations (Control, 2.5, 5, 15, 25, 50 75, and 100%) for irrigation purposes. Effect of textile mill effluent on seed germination, shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight, number of leaves, total leaf area, number of root nodules and pigments of chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’ and total chlorophyll of cow pea was studied at 15th DAS of seedlings. All morphological growth parameters, pigment contents, were found to increase at 5% textile mill effluent concentration and it decreased from 10% effluent concentration onwards. So these results reflect that the textile mill effluent is toxic to crop and it can be used for irrigation purpose after a proper treatment with appropriate dilution.

Keywords Textile mill effluent, cow pea, germination percentage, plant biomass, pigment content.

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Fruit Flavored Yoghurt: Chemical, Functional and Rheological Properties

Abstract Yoghurt is a coagulated milk product that results from the fermentation of lactose in milk by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermphillus. The health benefits can be increased by adding native fruit pulps. Yoghurt with different fruit pulp includes papaya and cactus pear was prepared and stored up to 10 days. The fruit were added at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15%w/w. Physicochemical properties of yoghurt samples include moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash were determined at first days of storage. Acidity, pH, syneresis, water holding capacity (WHC), total count, coliform group, yeast &mould and organoleptic properties were evaluated yoghurts at zero time, after 5 and 10 days of storage at refrigerator.There were significantly differences between plain yoghurt and fruit yogurt in the pH, moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate content and titratable acidity amounts 5 day of storage. The results showed that acidity increased over the storage period. Highest values for WHC and lowest values for syneresis were belonged to yogurt with 15 % cactus pear and 10 days storage with 71.21% and 16.01%, respectively. Sensory evaluation results showed that there were significant differences among the yoghurt samples. The yoghurt containing papaya pulp had the highest overall acceptability scores as compare to other fruit yogurt samples and also plain yogurt. The results of current study demonstrated that the addition of fruits to the yogurt significantly improved the quality of yogurt.

Keywords Fruit yoghurt, Phytochemicals, Sensory quality, Syneresis, Water holding capacity (WHC).

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Ecophysiological Yield Components In Wheat Cultivars Under Variable Phosphorus Availability

Abstract Effects of P deficiency and interactions Cultivar x P available, on wheat yield and ecophysiological components were analysed, considering that the grain number m-2 is the product of the length of spike growth period, crop growth rate during this phase, the proportion of growth for spikes (partitioning) and spike fertility (grain number produced per unit of spike dry weight). Four cultivars with different strategy to generate yield (i.e. combinations of ecophysiological yield components) were compared with and without P fertilization, during two years in Azul, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The soil was moderately P deficient (7-9 mg P kg-1 soil) and P fertilization treatments (50 kg P ha-1) were established at sowing. P deficiencies affected yield and most of its components, the exceptions were: partitioning to spike, spike growth period and radiation use efficiency. The interaction Cultivar x P fertilization was not significant in all cases. The lack of interaction between cultivar and P level suggest that improvements in any crop physiological component will express in both, moderately deficiencies or high P environment.

Keywords Ecophysiological yield components, P deficiency, stability yield components.

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Exogenous application with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or proline induces stress tolerance in basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) exposed to water stress

Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) like Azotobacter chrocoocum A101, Pseudomonas fluorescens, pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni 1970 and Azospirillum lipoferum N040 or proline on growth traits, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage percent (EL%), osmoprotectants such as proline and soluble sugars, activities of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase (CAT), oil percent and water use efficiency (WUE) of basil plants subjected to water stress. Plants were treated with two regimes of irrigation water, i.e., 100% of evapotranspiration (ETc) (control) and 60% of ETc and PGPR or proline. Growth traits, photosynthetic pigments, RWC, EL %, proline and soluble sugars concentrations, activities of antioxidant enzymes oil percent and water use efficiency (WUE) were significantly altered by water stress and PGPR or proline treatments. Results indicated that PGPR or proline mitigated the water stress and significantly reduced the reduction in growth traits and leaf water content as compared to non-PGPR or proline-treated water-stressed plants. Water-stressed plants treated with PGPR or proline had significant higher photosynthetic pigments, proline and soluble sugars concentrations than water-stressed plants without PGPR or proline treatments. Higher POD, PPO and CAT activities were also observed in water-stressed plants treated by PGPR or proline than water-stressed plants without PGPR or proline treatments. Furthermore, water-stressed plants treated with PGPR or proline treatments had also significant higher oil percent and WUE as compared to water-stressed plants without PGPR or proline treatments. These results are important as the potential of PGPR or proline to alleviate the harmful effects of water stress and offers an opportunity to increase the resistance of basil plants to growth under drought conditions. The protective action of PGPR was more efficient than proline.

Keywords Antioxidant system; Anatomy; Basil; Osmoprotectants; PGPR; Proline; Water stress.

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Impact of Agricultural Management on Quality of Soil, Carbon Storage and Carbon Stratification

Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the carbon storage – Ec (Mg ha-1), carbon stratification ratio, carbon management index (CMI) in various systems use and management: a) Native forest (NF), b) improved pasture of Tanzania grass (TIP), c) degraded pasture of Tanzania grass (DP), d) hay area (H) with Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria sp) and e) Corn crop conventionally cultivated for 10 years (CTC). The experiment was conducted at Institute of Animal Science, at Sertaozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replicates. The Ec, in Mg ha-1, adjusted variations in soil density, related to changes in land use were for native forest (112.9), improved pasture (81.6), system of conventional maize (78.2), field of hay (75.1) and degraded pasture (66.5). The highest values of carbon stratification (SR) were the forest (1.98), and lower in degraded pasture and conventional maize (1.10) – are considered poor in quality, while the improved pasture (1.28) and the area of hay (1.23 ) of media quality and while the forest considered great quality. For the different systems of use and management, low CMI values indicate a loss of soil quality related to native forest (100%), the values obtained in improved pasture (58%) indicate that there is potential for advances in the soil quality, adjusting grazing management and fertilization of annual replacement.

Keywords Carbon management index, Carbon stratification ratio, Organic carbon.

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Weekly and Monthly Groundwater Recharge Estimation in A Rural Piedmont Environment using the Water Table Fluctuation Method

Abstract La Colacha basin (Córdoba province, Argentina) is a typical piedmont rural area where the unconfined aquifer is used for agricultural activities. The objective of this work is to show the estimation of the recharge (R) rate in the unconfined aquifer, using the water table fluctuation method (WTF). Furthermore, considerations in relation to monthly and weekly recharge rhythms and to the aquifer discharge (D) were performed. The aquifer shows a typical behavior of groundwater recharge areas with an important and quick answer of water table to the arrival of precipitations (P). After that, a recession curve is observed, representing the groundwater discharge to the local base level (the main stream of the basin). The monthly estimation resulted in an annual average R value of 14.3 % of total P. Although the major amounts of recharge occur in full summer, according to the major total amounts of P, the correlation between monthly R and P was low (r2 < 0.2) as a result of the high quantities of rainfall water that are converted into runoff. The regression coefficient is higher (r2 = 0.6) for the end of summer and autumn when rainfalls diminish and have low intensities. This situation provides less water to the aquifer, but the recharge process is more efficient. The ratio R/D for the 3 year series was positive, which means that the aquifer recharge was dominant. In the weekly recharge analysis, the annual average R is slightly lower than in the monthly one, that is, 12.4 % of the total P. Thus, it may be concluded that, in this case, the change from monthly to a weekly time step, did not much improve the final value. However, the information obtained with the weekly estimation is much more useful to interpret the aquifer detailed behavior.

Keywords recharge, time step, unconfined aquifer

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EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction of Cd and Pb in spiked soil with Marigold and associated potential leaching risk

Abstract EDTA is a common chelating agent used in phytoextraction for enhancing the trace elements uptake from soil to plants. But application of EDTA can cause ground water contamination, which is potentially a risk for human health. In this study EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction of Cd and Pb by Marigold. was evaluated. Application of EDTA could significantly increase Cd and Pb accumulation in the various part of plants, but EDTA addition also increased the Cd and Pb concentration in leached water about 8 to 12 time and 50 to 75 times respectively compared to the control. So, insitu application of EDTA can be potentially risk to ground water contamination with trace elements.

Keywords EDTA, leached water, Marigold, phytoextraction.

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Influence of oil on the grain culture of S.cereale (L)

Abstract The toxic effect of oil on a gramineae species – rye S. cereale L. has been studied. When introducing oil into soils it has been found that the soil fraction with the particle size being 0.05-0.45 mm absorbs the oil least of all. Here, the distribution of the estimated polyaromatic hydrocarbons is directly dependent on the portion of the size fractions of the soils under study. During the experiments the oil loss from the soils amounts to ~17 %, which is due to the possible oil decomposition by the plant roots and partial evaporation of oil from the soil surface. With the oil content being 9 %, the young rye shoots are suppressed, but the biomass is quite viable, which is evidenced by IR spectroscopy and morphological indicators. However, chromosome disturbances have been observed as a result of cytogenetic studies of the root system of rye, which are associated, among other things, with the effect of the soil particle agglutination around the root system. This may disturb the chloroplast motionin the cells, giving rise to anomalies in cell structures. Thus, the conducted experiments can indicate that rye can be applied for the phytoremediation of soils polluted by oil spills.

Keywords oil, rye S. cereale L., chtomatography, distribution, toxicity.

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Macrobenthic Invertebrate assemblage along gradients of the river Basantar (Jammu, J&K) in response to industrial wastewater

Abstract A limnological investigation was carried out in River Basantar in the Jammu province of Jammu & Kashmir (India) during the period from December, 2009 to November, 2011 in order to analyse the effect of industrial pollution on the diversity and population density of Macrobenthic invertebrate fauna along the longitudinal profile of the river. A total of 27 macrobenthic invertebrate taxa inhabited the river; among these Arthropoda dominated the macrobenthic community (81.48%, 22 species) followed by Annelida (11.11%, 3 species) and Mollusca (7.41%, 2 species). The Discharge Zone (St II) had the highest mean standing crop of macrobenthic population while the lowest species number. Oligochaetes (Annelida) and Dipterans (Arthropoda) exhibited their abundance at polluted sites whereas Odonates, Ephemeropterans, Hemipterans, Coleopterans (Arthropoda) and Molluscs were abundant at least polluted sites. Tubifex tubifex, Branchiura sowerbyi, Limnodrillus hoffmeisteri, Chironomus, Tubifera, Psychoda and Physa acuta were identified as pollution indicator taxa while Progomphus, Cloeon, Baetis and Gyraulus as sensitive taxa.

Keywords Pollution, Diversity, Macrobenthic Invertebrate, Indicator taxa.

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Nonautonomous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons in Plants: Progress and Perspective

Abstract Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), the major genomic components in plants, can be classified into autonomous and nonautonomous elements based on their internal structures and retrotranspositional properties. Large numbers of nonautonomous elements have been identified, but the factors, and mechanisms that govern their retrotranspositional processes are poorly understood. Here we summarize the recent advance of LTR-RTs in plants, and discuss how nonautonomous LTR-RTs were generated, proliferated and evolved in their host genomes, with an emphasis on the discussion of the partnership and interaction between nonautonomous elements and their autonomous partners. Thus this review will provide insights into the evolution of nonautonomous LTR-RTs, and facilitate our full understanding of the retrotranspositional process of LTR-RTs in plants.

Keywords Retrotansposons, long terminal repeats, evolution, plants.

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Identification of Ralstonia Solanacearum in Kyrgyzstan’s Potato Fields and the Possibility of Using Biocontrol Agents Against this Pathogen

Abstract— In this study, we have used well-known, efficient methods and bioassay for systematic screening of R. solanacearum for identification of its phenotype and biochemical profile, as well as for pathogenicity and virulence. As a result, an aggressive race — Biovar 3 — was most isolated from the potato fields of the Issyk-Kul region, especially in fields where the Picasso variety was grown. The isolated indigenous strains of Streptomyces diastatochromogenesstrain sk-6 and Streptomyces bambergiensis strain k1-3 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of the bacterial wilt of potatoes, as indicated by the reduced percentage wilt incidence. Root zone and soil application of Streptomyces diastatochromogenesstrain sk-6 and Streptomyces bambergiensis strain k1-3 at a dose of 108 cell/ml significantly reduced disease incidence and increased the growth of potato plants. The disease’s progress was reduced by 60% and 56% in plants inoculated with Streptomyces diastatochromogenesstrain sk-6 and Streptomyces bambergiensis strain k1-3, respectively.

Keywords— bacterial wilt of potatoes, biocontrol, R. solanacearum,Streptomyces diastatochromogenes, Streptomyces bambergiensis.

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Effects of cytokinins and auxins on micropropagation of Musa spp. cv. Yangambi

Abstract The present study was conducted at Banana Tissue Culture lab of Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha to obtain a standardized micropropagation protocol supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins and auxins for Musa cv. Yangambi Km-5 (AAA) variety. Data collected for in vitro culture consists of the following parameters: days for bud initiation, rate of shoot proliferation (%), growth value (gm) and number of multiple shoot buds during multiplication stage. Remarkable effects of Cytokinins and Auxins were observed in Yangambi Km-5. Out of various treatments, best concentration for multiple shoot in short period of time for Yangambi Km-5 was found in mediums 3 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l IAA + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 100 mg/l ADS and 1.5 mg/l BAP + 1.5 mg/l KN + 1 mg/l IAA + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 100 mg/l ADS. Maximum growth value, rate of proliferation and number of shoot buds was obtained from explants culture medium 3 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l IAA + 0.25 mg/l NAA + 100 mg/l ADS.

Keywords Micropropagation, growth regulators, Yangambi Km-5, Musa spp.

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Contribution to the Study of the Preservation by Drying of Mushrooms Pleurotus Ostreatus P969 Strain

Abstract Mushrooms make parts of foodstuffs very perishable. With the aim of extending their shelf life, the drying is recommended. In this work, we used two modes of drying: the freeze-drying and the solar drying. After drying, samples were packaged in some newspaper paper and stored during 4 months at room temperature. Some small modifications were observed in the parameters studied before drying and after storage. The pH passes from 6,5 to 6,2, the nitrogen of 0,067 mg at 0,057 mg, the phosphorus concentration decrease of 224 mg at 182,2 mg, the potassium did not change 0,6 mmol, the proteins rate decrease 0,419 % at 0,338 % and the concentration of vitamin C decrease of 9,25 mol at 8,75 mol.

Keywords Pleurotus, drying, micronutrients, storage, room temperature.

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Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Penetration towards the Head of the Handölan Valley: Recent Reversal of Long-Term Retrogressional Trend –Contrasting Responses to Climate Change of Tree-and Forest Line

Abstract With a climate-change perspective, this study focuses on the recent history and performance of the much separated pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree and forest lines in a mountain valley in the southern Swedish Scandes. Historical records define quite accurately these “lines” by the early 20th century and mid-1970s. Their subsequent dynamic performances have been surveyed up to the present day. Both lines are currently positioned within the subalpine mountain birch forest belt (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii). Consequently, their past, present and future changes rely on the evolution of the birch forest matrix. Between the early 20th century and the mid-1970s, the position of the pine forest- and tree lines remained fairly stable. Conspicuously, the forest line population densified in accord with early-20th century climate warming, although with a stagnant position. In great contrast, the tree line, i.e. scattered solitary, fast-growing and vigorous trees, has shifted up-valley 135 m through the birch forest belt to a position about 12 km south of the position by the mid-1970s. It is hypothesized that the vast separation of forest- and tree line relates to the presence of the subalpine birch forest belt. This contention is supported by vigorous growth of outlier pine trees, predominantly in birch forest gaps and a treeline gradually rising towards the south in the valley. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that, with present-day climatic conditions, the potential pine forest line is much south (and higher) of its present position within the competing birch forest belt. In the case of future climate warming, this forest range is anticipated to be realized. That would be a return to the situation during the early- and mid- Holocene, when pine dominated the upper tree line ecotone and the birch belt was poorly developed.

Keywords Tree line, forest line, Pinus sylvestris, climate change, subalpine birch forest.

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Pen Farming in A Small River: Its Impact on Fish Production and Economic Condition of Pen Farmers

Abstract Present study was conducted in the river Chota Bhagirathi in Malda district of West Bengal to assess the productivity of fish-pens and its impact on economic condition of the pen farmers. Fifteen pen farmers were selected for the study and their age ranged from 25-40 yrs. Among them 53.33% were 31-35 yrs old and 33.33% were within 36-40 yrs. Individual pen farming area varied from 3.0 ha to > 6.0 ha in the river Chota Bhagirathi. According to the size, pens were categorized into three groups: small pen (3.0-4.5 ha), medium pen (4.6-6.0 ha) and big pen (> 6.0 ha). Small pen farmers contributed 40.00%, medium pens 33.33% and big pens 26.67% of the total pen farming area in the river. The lease amount of pens varied according to pen area. Maximum fish production achieved from P1 (3281 kg/ha/year), P7 (3333 kg/ha/year), P8 (3444 kg/ha/year), P9 (3225 kg/ha/year) and P10 (3279 kg/ha/year) compared with other pens. P1 (Rs. 1,14,474 ha/year) earned highest profit and P8 (Rs. 1,06,771 ha/year) was second highest among 15 pens. Among the selected pen farmers, 73.33% were from non-fisherman community and only 26.67% from original fisherman folk.

Keywords Pen Farming, Age, Production, Economics.

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Copper Accumulation in Leucaena leucocephala by Mycorrhizae Glomus Sp. Zac–19 in Symbiosis with Rhizobium

Abstract The Jose Antonio Alzate dam is the main man-made reservoir along the Lerma River in central Mexico. The water in this dam is heavily contaminated with organic and inorganic residues including copper and other heavy metals. For many years, people living in the vicinity of the dam use sediments as fertilizers, resulting in heavy soil contamination. This study focuses on the use of native Leucadena leucocephala, a small, fast-growing mimosid tree cultivated under greenhouse conditions in an attempt to reduce the levels of copper. The plant was inoculated with a fungus of the Glomus sp. Zac-19 species that in a symbiotic manner increases the decontaminating properties of L. leucocephala. The study was carried out in three stages, starting with sequential extractions to assess the geochemical distribution of copper. Next, L. leucocephala was grown under controlled conditions using a factorial statistical model adding two known doses of Cu2+ and a third plantlet grown under normal conditions to be used as control. The plant growth was followed at random during 30, 60, 90 and 180 days to assess the level of copper bioaccumulation in leaves, stem and in the whole plant. The bioaccumulation index was evaluated using the initial six fractions, with fraction five revealing a direct relationship between the levels of copper in plant and sediment. Due to the relation of fraction V with humic material, it was finally considered for the calculation of the bioaccumulation index. Copper accumulation in stems was greater than in leaves and the metal concentration decreased with time. The percentage of arbuscules, vesicles and complete colonization was affected by high doses of Cu2+,inhibiting the growth of stem and leaves of L. leucocephala. These results suggest that the plant can be useful for the biological removal of copper in contaminated sediments or soils.

Keywords copper speciation, polluted soil, phytoremediation, Glomus sp.,Rhizobium, Leucaena.

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Eucalypt as trap plant to capture associative fungi in soil samples from great depth

Abstract There are only very few papers reporting on mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi along a whole soil profile in great depth. The objective of our study was to find propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF), ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and dark septate endophytic fungi (DSE) using Eucalyptus grandis as trap plant. We sampled soil of the surface to eight m down in a four-years-old eucalypt plantation. The sampled soil was used as seeding substrate in 300 ml-pots in the greenhouse at a temperature of 28ºC. Plants were grown for 100 days before harvest and evaluation of fungal presence in the plantlets. In most of the treatments (soil layers of increasing depth) we found root colonization of plantlets by different fungi. In some of the treatments, even in some originating from very deep soil layers, we detected the synthesis of ectomycorrhizal fruiting bodies. Some of the fungi in the plants could be isolated and identified. Therefore, we conclude that in every one of the different soil layers there was the presence of one or more potentially associative fungi with this tree.

Keywords Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Dark septate Endophytes, Deep soil layers, Ectomycorrhiza.

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Air Pollution in Industrial Area

Abstract Large scale industrialisation increases the production of materials and urbanisation leads to the creation of mega cities where there is a tremendous increase in the number of industries, Vehicles and vehicular traffic. The ill effects of these activities are reflected in the form environmental problems. one such problem is the deterioration of urban air quality in India and other developing countries. Air pollution causes eye irritation .lung cancer, asthma, brochchetisis etc which reduces the efficiency at work. Epidemiological studies showed there is a significant association between the conce3ntration of air pollution and adverse health impacts (ostro.et.al 1945, MJA 2004) lack of opportunities for gainful employment, drought prone problems Flourosis problem associated with the drinking water quality in Telenagana state has led to ever increasing population migration of poor from rural areas resulted in urban slums which exert pressure on the environmental resources of the city. Taking that factor into consideration present carried out research study by carrying out studies in the industrial area of Hyderabad and developed a controlling technology for removal of air pollutant sulphurdioxide.

Keywords Air pollution, solar, health.

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Changes in Aflatoxins Contents of the Maize (Zea Mays L.) Stored in Clay Granaries with use of Biopesticides from Rural Conditions and Estimation of their Intake

Abstract Maize protection without any risks for human health and environment concerns might be valued on alternative uses of pest control methods that do not only rely on synthetic insecticides. A combination of leaves derived from Lippia multiflora Moldenke and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Benth were tested for their protective effect on the aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains stored in traditional and improved granaries in Côte d’Ivoire. Thus, 4 aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were determined with high performance liquid chromatography according to the official method of AOAC. Results showed presence of afltatoxins in 58% of samples, and specifically aflatoxin B1 from half the samples, with rather higher levels than the reference values of the European Union. The levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 resulted from both maize cobs and grains treated with biopesticides (from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 2.18-50.70 µg/kg) were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control granaries (ranging from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 12.48-346.15 µg/kg). In the treated maize, the aflatoxins levels increased slightly during 6 months of storage, while the untreated maize cobs were with significant increasing of the same toxins traits month after month. For each stage, aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains did not differ whether they are treated in traditional or improved granaries with both plant materials.

The estimated risk of exposure in aflatoxins, specifically in total aflatoxins and AFB1, deriving with intakes of maize stored for 6 months are respectively 114.37±2.2 ng/kg body weight/day and 36.21±0.11 ng/kg body weight/day for the untreated granaries and 7.15±0.04 ng/kg body weight/day and 2.12±0.17 ng/kg body weight/day for the treated granaries. These levels are strongly higher than the maximal Reference Value (0.15 pg/kg body weight/day) tolerated for Toxicity exposure. Therefore, it’s necessary to sensitize, on a larger scale, actors of maize path, namely farmers, retailers, processers and consumers about such mycotoxins in maize products for providing health safety to Ivorian populations.

Keywords stored maize, biopesticides, traditional and improved granaries, intake of aflatoxins, health risk.

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Antimicrobial efficiency of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma processed water (PPW) against agricultural relevant bacteria suspensions

Abstract Currently used methods for decontamination and sanitation are antimicrobial ineffective, generate high costs with a high consumption of water and chemicals additionally. As an alternative, non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure could be a versatile tool. Therefore, an experimental set-up based on a microwave-plasma source which generates plasma processed air (PPA) containing manifold RNS-based chemical and antimicrobial compounds was used. The PPA was introduced into distilled water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or nutrient broth to generate plasma processed water (PPW), plasma processed PBS (PPP) or plasma processed broth (PPB) which can be applied for the decontamination of packaging material, fresh produce and processing equipment. This is a new and innovative method for the generation of antimicrobial active plasma processed liquids (PPL). In our experiments, bacterial suspensions contaminated with six different bacteria; Escherichia coli K12 (DSM 11250), Pseudomonas fluorescens (DSM 50090), Pseudomonas fluorescens (RIPAC), Pseudomonas marginalis (DSM 13124), Pectobacterium carotovorum (DSM 30168) and Listeria innocua (DSM 20649) in a concentration of 106 cfu . ml-1 and subsequently treated with PPW, PPP, PPB and HNO3 were investigated. For PPL production, the plasma was ignited for 5, 15 or 50 s. After a post-plasma treatment with PPL of maximum 5 minutes, a decrease of bacterial load up to 6 log steps were detected for examined bacteria. Furthermore, an exclusive inactivation by acidification of PPL was excluded. The characteristics of plasma and its generated cocktail of long living chemical compounds in air and in water leading to a high bacterial inactivation and offering a wide range of possible applications.

Keywords fresh food, microbial inactivation, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma, plasma processed water.

Highlights:

  • microwave plasma processed liquids used successfully for bacterial inactivation
  • 3 different plasma processed liquids, distilled water, PBS and nutrient broth were investigated and their antimicrobial efficacy compared among each other and to HNO3 solution
  • decontamination by plasma up to 6.0 log steps for potential human and phytopathogens were achieved.
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Determination of 8-Hydroxy-2 Deoxyguanosine in Pseudomonas Fluorescens Freeze-Dried Exposed to the ROS Using HPLC with Electrochemical Detection Method

Abstract Oxidative DNA damage is involved in the f cell death induced by freeze-dried powder during storage. Cell 8-hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is widely accepted as a biomarker of the “freeze-dried bacteria” oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for determination 8-oxodG in cell freeze-dried samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. In the tested range of 0.5 µmol L-1 to 1.0 nmol L-1, the calibration curve was linear (r2=0.9995) and the limit of detection was 0.05 µmol L-1. The used method did not allow highlighting the presence in the samples of the 8OH within the limits of detection. A more successful method (more sensitive) would be needed to detect possibly the 8OH.

Keywords Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), DNA, 8-Hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine.

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