IJOEAR: August 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-8, august 2018

Purification and properties of polygalacturonase associated with the infection process of Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 in chilli

AbstractIn this study, polygalacturonase enzyme produced by Colletotrichum truncatum CP2 was partially purified by aqueous two-phase system and the properties of this enzyme was characterized. The highest yield (57.4%) and purification fold (5.1) was obtained using 22% PEG 6,000/15% sodium citrate comprising crude load of 16% (w/w) at pH 7.0 with addition of 1.0% (w/w) sodium chloride. The partially purified PG remained active over a wide range of pH (2.5-6.0) and the optimum activity was obtained at pH 5.0. Incubation of the partially purified PG at 40 and 50 °C for 30 min caused the activity of PG to decrease up to 20% and 40%, respectively. However, no significant changes in the activity when the enzymes were incubated up to 4 h at 40 and 50 °C. The results from this study suggested that ATPS comprising of PEG and sodium citrate could be potentially used as an alternative method for purification of PG.

Keywords Chilli, Colletotrichum truncatum, polygalacturonase, aqueous two-phase system.

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Study of Macroinvertebrates Assemblage as an Indication of a Tropical Freshwater Lagoon Water Quality: Ono Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa)

Abstract This study aimed to assess the water quality of Ono lagoon using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) scoring system and the Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) were used to assess the ecosystem health of water. Samples were monthly collected from September 2015 to August 2016. A total of 12145 macroinvertebrates belonging to 47 families, 17 orders, 5 classes and 3 phyla were identified. Macroinvertebrates were mainly composed of Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida. The most abundant taxa was Insecta (83.14%) followed by Gastropoda (6.65%) and whereas the least abundant taxa were Achaeta (6.19%), Crustacea (2.39%) and Arachnida (1.62%). The BMWP score was 140, indicating that water was neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic habitat. According to the PTI, the water was moderately polluted based on the number of moderately pollution-sensitive organisms (52.96%) and the number of aquatic organisms which are fairly and very sensitive to pollution (34.6%). These results showed that biological quality of Ono lagoon can be considered as acceptable.

Keywords BMWP scoring system, Macroinvertebrates, Ono Lagoon, Pollution Tolerance Index, Water quality.

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Hydroponic hop crop (Humulus lupulus L.) under greenhouse conditions in Mexico City.

Abstract H. lupulus is a dioecious plant member of the Cannabaceae family whose female flowers are used in the brewing industry. The value of female plants lies in the lupulin glands that contain resins and essential oils required for the flavor and aroma of beer. Hop crop growths between 35 ° and 55 ° latitude north and south, however, it has been possible to cultivate where conditions does not resemble those observed in the mentioned latitudes. Even more, hop has been hydroponic cultivated in traditional crop areas. Hydroponics provides controlled conditions, isolation and all needed nutrients in an aqueous solution. The aim of this work was to establish a hydroponic hop culture in greenhouse conditions, using a modified Hoagland nutrient solution. An average daily growth rate of 1.17 cm was obtained by rhizome plants and of 1.38 cm for those from freshly germinated seedlings, and an average overall height of 218 cm, an adequate growth when compared to the background of this crop. The data obtained show that hydroponics hop crops can be settle in areas with different conditions from those of the traditional cultivation zone.

Keywords Brewing industry, hop, hydroponics, rhizome, seedling.

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Determining the best Lentil (Lens culinaris) and Mustard (Brassica campestris) Intercrop Combination to Improve Biomass Yield and Economic Returns on the Yield in Southern Region of Bangladesh

Abstract An intercropping experiment on mustard with lentil was conducted during rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rahmatpur, Barisal to find out suitable intercrop combination for higher profitability and economic return. Sole lentil (100%), sole mustard (100%) and five intercrop combinations {one row of lentil and one row of mustard (1:1), one row of mustard in between two rows of lentil (2:1), one row of mustard in between three rows of lentil (3:1), one row of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:1) and two rows of mustard in between four rows of lentil (4:2)} were evaluated in the present study. Significantly the highest lentil (1.91 t/ha) and mustard yield (1.48 t/ha) were obtained from their respective sole crops. Lentil yield was reduced (17-34%) due to intercropping, but it was compensated by the mustard yield. Moreover, land equivalent ratios (LER) of the intercrop treatments were higher than those of sole crops. The highest (2.29t/ha) lentil equivalent yield (LEY) was obtained from T5 treatment (One row of lentil + Three rows of mustard). This treatment also gave the highest LER (1.65), gross return (Tk 182400/ha), net return (Tk. 103200/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.29).

Keywords— Corroboration, Lentil (Lens culinaris), Mustard (Brassica campestris), Intercropping and Equivalent yield.

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Tracking of Diversity among a Wide Local Collection of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Landraces in Bangladesh

Abstract Genetic diversity of twenty bitter gourd genotypes based on ten characters was measured through multivariate analysis. The 20 genotypes fell into five distant clusters. The cluster IV comprised the maximum number (6) of genotypes followed by same in cluster II and cluster III (5). The cluster I and V comprised 3 and 1genotypes respectively. The highest inter-cluster distance (64.53) was observed between the cluster III and V. The lowest inter-cluster distance (7.05) was observed between the cluster II and III. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances. The intra-cluster distance in the entire five clusters was more or less low indicating that the genotypes within the same cluster were closely related. Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were the important component characters having higher contribution to the genetic divergence. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that branch per vine, fruits length, and fruit diameter had positive direct effect on fruit yield. Wide genetic diversity was observed in 20 genotypes of bitter gourd, which were grouped into five clusters. The genotypes of clusters III were more diverse from the genotypes of cluster V.Fruit diameter and fruits per plant were found responsible for the maximum diversity. Hybridization between the genotypes of cluster III and cluster V will manifest the wide genetic variability. Considering group distance and the agronomic performance, the inter genotypic crosses between G16 and G1; G16 and G17; G16 and G10; G16 and G4; G16 and G13 might be suitable choice for future hybridization programme.

Keywords Diversity, Path co-efficient, Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.), Landraces, Agronomic performance and Hybridization.

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Floristic Structure of Yukarisevindikli Natural Pasture in Tekirdag, Turkey

Abstract This research was conducted in Yukarisevindikli village natural pasture in Tekirdag province at Trakya (Thrace) region in Turkey. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between plant species composition and different management techniques of Yukarisevindikli natural pasture. Measurements on pasture were made at 3 different management system (grazed, abondened, mowed) units. Some ecological indicators were investigated such as frequency families, lifeforms, life spam and phytogeographical regions. The most widely spread species on grazed and abondened units were scented grass (Chrysopogon gryllus). Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens were determined common in mowed pasture units. Hemicryptophytes were dominant in the investigated area, followed by therophytes, chamaphytes and geophytes.

Keywords Pasture, biodiversity, land use, vegetation.

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