Detection of Parapoxvirus in goats during contagious ecthyma outbreak in Ceará State, Brazil by transmission electron microscopy techniques
Abstract— Contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a viral skin disease that occurs in sheep, goats and wild ruminants and is characterized by the formation of papules, nodules or vesicles that progress into thick crusts or heavy scabs on the lips, gingiva and tongue, caused by a member of the Parapoxvirus genus. Humans are occasionally affected constituting important zoonosis. The disease not only has an economic impact on farmers worldwide but also has a considerable negative effect on animal welfare. In this study, a contagious ecthyma outbreak which occurred in one flock with 90 goats located in the Ceará State, Brazil, was described. Twenty-two goats older than 6 months were affected. The animals presented crusted lesions on the buccal region, tongue, udder and teats, which began with swelling in the mouth area. Dried crusts and serum collected were processed for transmission electron microscopy utilizing, negative staining (rapid preparation), Immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles) and resin embedding techniques. At the Philips EM 208 transmission electron microscopy all the samples were analyzed by negative staining technique and a great number of parapoxvirus particles ovoid or cylindrical, showing two morphological forms, a mulberry (M) form with a distinctive crisscross filament pattern derived from the superimposition of upper and lower virion surfaces and a capsular (C) form caused by stain penetration and distention of the virion core, measuring 300 x 180 nm was observed. Antigen antibody reaction was increased by the colloidal gold particles. In the ultrathin sections of crusts, we verified the presence of three types of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, type A or Bollinger inclusion bodies, outlined by membrane, presented in it is interior, oval, mature or complete viral particles, measuring on the average, 225nm x 130 nm, showing an inner dumbell-shaped core, two lateral bodies and an external envelope, or cigar shaped core. In the type B electron dense inclusions bodies, were visualized parapoxvirus particles budding of dense and amorphous material. Fibrillar intracytoplasmic inclusions were also found located between the virions, consisting of groups of fibrils, arranged in groups or concentrically in the middle of the granular material. Intracytoplasmic vesicles outlined by membranes, measuring 560 x 420 nm, containing granular material in its interior were also observed. The nuclei showed an aspect deformed.
Keywords— Parapoxvirus, Goats, Transmission electron microscopy.
Influence of Plant Density and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. romana L.)
Abstract— The aim of the paper was to present the influence of plant density and different types of organic mulch on growth and yield of Romain lettuce. The field experiment was carried out in 2014 in the experimental field of University of Forestry – Sofia, with Romaine lettuce cv. Yellow beauty. The seedlings were planted at a distance of 30 x 30 cm and two different schemes were tested: parallel planting to form a 4-row bed and a chess planting to form a 7-row bed. For the purpose of the study were used different organic mulches, which were waste products from organic agriculture: barley straw (BS), well-rotted horse manure (HM), walnut wood sawdust (WS) and grass windrow (GW) and non-mulched control plots (NMC). The mulching materials were spread manually in a 5-6 cm thick layer, after strengthen the seedlings of Romain lettuce. On the 60th day after planting was the beginning of harvesting. It was found out that the seven-row bed and mulching influenced growth and yield of Romain lettuce. Mulching with HM has a significant effect on growth and yield. In the cultivation of lettuce in combination with horse manure mulch and seven-row bed, the yield increased by 18% compared to the non-mulched control in the same planting scheme and was 2.3 times higher than the non-mulched control in a four-row bed. A significant effect on the mulched variants was established.
Keywords— grass windrow mulch, horse manure mulch, lettuce, seven-row bed, yield.
Abstract—Because solar power is susceptible to clouds and substances in the air, the solar photovoltaic cannot produce stable power output. Solar irradiance is a measurement of the power output of photovoltaic module. Therefore, this paper uses some different combination inputs of the neural network to develop the solar irradiance forecasting with 24 hours ahead. Their forecasting performances are evaluated and some comparison results in Taichung solar farm are given.
Keywords—Neural network, Solar Irradiance, Solar Power Systems.
The Role of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes in the Development of Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichumtruncatum in the Chilli
Abstract— The ability of Colletotrichumtruncatum CP2 in producing pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes was evaluated by shake flask fermentations. The results of enzymatic activity experiment indicated that PG was the first cell wall-degrading enzymes detected and the activities obtained were higher (0.24±0.10 U/mL) than other enzymes, which appeared later and in lower amount. After the cell wall was degraded by the action of PG, further degradation of the cell wall was affected by pectin methylesterases, pectin lyase, pectate lyase and cellulases. The disparity in enzymatic activity at different intervals may suggest their specific role for pathogenesis at proper timings.
Keywords— Chilli anthracnose; Colletotrichumtruncatum, cell wall-degrading enzymes, pectinolytic, cellulolytic.
Productivity Assessment of Drought Tolerant Rice Cultivars under Different Crop Management Practices in Central Terai of Nepal
Abstract— Proper selections of resource conservation technologies and drought tolerant cultivars are being potential strategies determining productivity of rice in drought prone areas. Thus, a field experiment was accomplished in central-terai of Nepal during 2014 to assess the productivity of drought tolerant rice cultivars under different crop management practices. The experiment was carried out in strip-plot design with three replications consisting four drought tolerant rice cultivars and three crop management practices. The analyzed data revealed that SRI (System of Rice Intensification) produced significantly higher grain yield (5.28 t ha-1) than other management practices. The straw yield of SRI (5.12 t ha-1) was also significantly higher than other management practices. The cultivars had no influence on grain yield, but the straw yield was significantly influenced by cultivars, with the highest straw yield in Sukkha-3 (5.21 t ha-1). Thus, SRI management practice can be adopted as adaptation approach for obtaining higher productivity in central terai and similar agro-climatic regions of Nepal.
Keywords— Crop management practices, Productivity, Rice, SRI.
Abstract— We performed analysis of the biological properties of African swine fever virus (ASF) isolate Odintsovo 02/14. Domestic pigs were inoculated with 50 (low) or 5000 (high) hemadsorbing doses (HAD) of the virus via intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) routes, to investigate the pathogenesis of ASF virus Odintsovo 02/14 isolate. Our results indicated that filtered 10% spleen suspension of ASFV isolate Odintsovo 02/14 induced an acute disease in pigs, resulting in 100% mortality rate. For cultural viral suspension (3rd passage), produced in a PBM cells mortality rate was 85.7%.
We also present an analysis of the complete genome of African swine fever virus (ASF) Odintsovo 02/14 isolate. It is 189 333 nucleotide long and contains more than 160 open reading frames (ORFs). Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Odintsovo 02/14 isolate was obtained using pyrosequencing method and used to determine differences between the nucleotide sequences in the genomes of Odintsovo 02/14 and Georgia 01/2007. The genome of ASF virus Odintsovo 02/14 contains substitutions, insertions and deletions in genes encoding structural, membrane, and regulatory proteins, DNA reparation enzymes, host immune response evasion proteins, and MGF genes.
The intergenic region I73R/I329L of Odintsovo 02/14 isolate contains 10-nucleotide long tandem repeat sequence, missing in Georgia 01/2007.
Keywords— African swine fever (ASF), experimental challenge, complete genome sequencing, intergenic region, tandem repeats.
Abstract— Variation patterns and range of juvenile wood basic density (BD) of 30 loblolly pine provenances in Zhejiang Province of China were reported in this paper. There were four radial variation patterns of BD within 310 10-year-old trees of 30 provenances, but the main pattern was a steadily increasing trend from pith to bark. The early-late correlation coefficient of BD for loblolly pine strengthens with trees age and the value of BD in 5 years old trees can be used for predict that in 10 years old trees. The BD mean change of 30 provenances is similar to normal distribution and the BD varies from 0.343 to 0.412 g/cm3. The BD mean of the contrast provenance is 0.369 g/cm3 and in medial level. There is an obvious difference in BD among 30 provenances. Further analyses show that the difference among trees within a provenance is greater than that among provenances and the environment has significant effects on its BD. The broad heritability of BD is 0.72. The individual tree selection within a provenance was much better than that among different provenance.
The BD mean of 30 provenances is related positively to the provenance latitude, Longitude of provenance is related negatively to wood density in East Coast and positive to wood density in South Coast and Gulf. There is a tendency for BD of loblolly pine provenance to be lower from west to east and from north to south. This variation in plantation in a common environment turned out contrary to that of natural at different environment. The BD of loblolly pine provenances introduced from high latitude is greater than that from low latitude, but tree growth properties from low latitude were much faster than those from high latitude.
The BD mean value of 310 trees at the same growth stage (the same age) was negatively related to the diameter at breast height and volume of these trees. Wood density was significant correlated negatively with tracheid width and tracheid diameter at different growth stage of loblolly pine. DBH was significant positively correlated with tracheid width, tracheid diameter and negatively distinct related to ratio of tracheid double wall thickness to tracheid diameter. That DBH was related positively to ratio of tracheid diameter to tracheid width and negatively to tracheid wall thickness showed that the tracheid wall thickness of fast trees or fast provenances did not increase in proportion as tracheid width and tracheid diameter increased. This would lead to the decrease in wood basic density. Better provenance selection for pulpwood and building lumber should be determined from both tree growth and wood properties.
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Keywords— loblolly pine, wood density, variation, wood anatomy, provenance trial and correlation analyses.
Effects of Different Media on Micropropagation and Rooting of Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) in In Vitro Conditions
Abstract— Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is a small tree shrub of the family Myrtace, grown naturally of the Mediterranean area. Myrtle is very important as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic agent. Turkey has great genetic resources for myrtle. Propagation of myrtle genotypes is significant issue. Plant tissue culture techniques offer fast and reliable micropropagation for many plant species. Different media content could be used for micropropagation in in vitro condition. The aim of the present study is to determinate of effects of different media on micropropagation and rooting in myrtle. For this purpose, Murashige and Skoog (MS), Rugini Olive Medium (OM) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) media were used for micropropagation and rooting experiments. All media were supplemented with 1 mg l-1 BA for micropropagation, 1 mg l-1 IBA for rooting. The rate of micropropagation and plant length, rooting rate, numbers of root and root length were determined. Rooted with well-developed shoots transferred to plastic pots containing autoclaved peat and perlite (1:1, v/v). The potted plants were placed in a greenhouse. Acclimatized plants were compared after eight weeks. Means were separated by analysis of variance and the LSD test was performed to examine significant differences. Based on the result, the best medium was detected WPM on micropropagation rate (6.75 per plant), and then MS (4.20 per plant), OM (3.70 per plant). According to rooting data the highest rooting rate was calculated in WPM with 100%, rooting rate in OM and MS media was detected 70% and 50%, respectively.
Key Words— In vitro, plant tissue culture, MS, BA, IBA.