IJOEAR: July 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-7, july 2018

Potential of Mealybugs Infestation, Planococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in an Agroforestry System in Coffee Crops

AbstractThe association of tree species to coffee plantations is a common practice in coffee crops, and studies must be performed to establish the effects of these associations. Pests such as the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), and the pacificus mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), can host in several plants and should be studied in relation to this integration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of associated trees to be a source of infestation for coffee crops. The treatments consisted of acrocarpus (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius), African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), teak plants (Tectona grandis) and macadamia (Macadamia sp.), as well as the coffee tree Coffea Arabica cv. Mundo Novo. Food preference was studied in laboratory through the test of free choice. Mortality, development and reproduction were also evaluated on each host. Attractiveness of these plants towards the coffee tree was tested by means of an olfactometer, whereby the scale insects were exposed for 15 minutes to the odors of these plants. Both scales settled in all tested plants but the trees did not appear to be suitable hosts. High mortality was found on trees. These scales showed no olfactory preference between the coffee tree and the other tested species and teak leaves had even a repellent effect. It is concluded that acrocarpus, mahogany, macadamia and teak are not potential sources of infestation of mealybugs to the coffee tree, and by consequence they do not represent a threat to the crop.

KeywordsPlanococcus citri, Planococcus minor, Biology, Food Preference, Olfatometry.

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Water productivity and yield of Paddy Rice cultivation under AWD irrigation management in Pingtung, southern Taiwan

AbstractDecreasing water input while maintaining grain yield remains a challenge for World to produce rice sustainably. In recent years, the Alternate wetting and Drying Irrigation(AWD)has been developed toward Asian’ farmers. However, the gap observed is the low assessment of its performances, particularly in Taiwan.

The aim of this study is to determine whether AWDI management could maintain grain yield with reduced water input.

AWD approach experiment field was conducted in National Pingtung University, in Southern Taiwan. A two leaves old rice seedling, TAINAN11 was arranged in a randomized complete block design with five water treatments: AWD2cm, AWD3cm, AWD3cm/w, AWD4cm and AWD5cm with respectively 2cm and 3 cm water depth monitoring by soil hairline cracks; 3cm, 4 cm, and 5cm weekly irrigation. The irrigation regimes were done by AWD technics. The plant water status was assessed through soil water content. Crop growth, grain yield, and water productivity were measured.

The results showed that grain yields under AWD3cm, AWD2cm and AWD3cm/w presented the high yield and irrigation water productivity about 0.211, 0.208 and 0.205 respectively. The AWD4cm and AWD5cm despite the high-water depth presented low yield with respectively 3081 Kg/ha and 2604 Kg/ha.

The results confirmed also that AWD3cm and more precisely AWD3cm/w could obtain comparable grain yield close to farmers practices with fewer irrigations. These findings suggested that AWD with 3 cm water depth (AWD3cm and AWD3cm/w) could be used for water-saving while maintaining grain yield in paddy rice production.

Keywords—Grain yield, Water productivity, Alternate Wetting and Drying, AWD.

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Influence of Baobab Leaf Enrichment on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics of Plantain/Cashew kernels Composite Flours

Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the nutritional value and sensory acceptance of Baobab leaf enriched plantain- cashew kernel meal. Composite flours formulated from plantain and cashew almond were enriched with baobab leaf powder at substitution levels of 10%, 15% and 20%. The biochemical composition, minerals, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, sensory properties and nutritional parameters of the enriched composite flours were measured. The addition of baobab leaf powder evidenced significant (p <0.05) increase in protein, fiber, vitamin C, main mineral elements, total polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity; but dropped the lipids and carbohydrates contents. With sensory evaluation, cashew-almond-based composite meal formulas substituted for 10% by baobab leaf powder showed a similar overall sensory acceptance to non-enriched cashew-nut kernels. In addition, the ingestion of these meal formulas by the young rats was favorable to their growth. Thus, diets incorporating 10% baobab leaves are more suitable for consumption and growth of young rats.

Keywords Flour, plantain-cashew nut, enrichment, Baobab, leaves.

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Nutritional and Physiological Effects of Gradual Fish Replacement by Volvariella volvacea Powder in Growing Rats

Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effect of substitution of fish proteins by powder of Volvariella volvacea, an edible mushroom of Côte d’Ivoire, in the growing rats. The gradual substitution of fish proteins by mushroom proteins leads to a decrease in the growth performance of rats. With 75 % and 100 % mushroom in diets, body weight gain, food efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are negative. These diets do not affect the average weight of some organs (heart, liver and spleen), except for the kidney average weight that increases as mushroom levels increase in diets. Likewise, the average weight of abdominal fat decreases and disappears as the mushroom incorporation rate increases. The incorporation of mushroom powder into the control diet provokes changes in the mean value of some serum metabolites and electrolytes. The popular belief that states that mushrooms proteins can substitute meat proteins is not valid. Mushrooms can be proposed as dietetic regime for obese people.

Keywords Rats, Volvariella volvacea, growth, metabolites.

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Effects of supplementation on the mycelial ergosterol content of Agaricus bisporus grown on media formulated with olive oil subproducts.

Abstract Supplementation is one of the most relevant procedures for mushroom growth modulation. Little is known about the influence of supplementation on the concentrations of metabolites with potential health benefits. Experiments on compost require long cultivation times. Similar composition has been detected in fruiting bodies and mycelia. Therefore, the mycelial composition can be assumed to be similar to that of the fruiting bodies. This study examines the effect of supplementing a minimal defined growth medium with components derived from olive oil industry subproducts on A. bisporus mycelial composition, primarily ergosterol, when grown on minimal defined liquid and solid media in an attempt to obtain a higher concentration of ergosterol (pro-vitamin D2).

bisporus supplemented with alperujo meal (ALPM) and olive leaf meal (OLM) led to higher ergosterol content than that of the fungi grown in non-supplemented media (5.64±0.47, 6.60±0.86 and 4.08±0.53 mg/g p.s. in MDLm and 5.36±0.39, 6.79±0.41 and 4.22±0.43 mg/g p.s. in MDSm). Western blotting was used to validate the cultivation results. Three proteins (ERG2, ERG6, and EGR11) involved in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway were significantly upregulated, indicating the importance of supplementation to ergosterol biosynthesis.

This report represents the first comprehensive study on the protein expression profiling of supplementation studies directed to improve metabolites with potential health benefits in A. bisporus. It provides new insights and a better understanding of the development of cultivation processes directed to increase ergosterol biosynthesis. These results could be used to obtain mycelia with higher vitamin D2 content after irradiation with UVB light.

Keywords Agaricus bisporus, cultivation medium supplementation, ergosterol, olive leaf meal, two-phase pomace.

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