Biometric characterization of local chicken “Gallus gallus domesticus” according to the sex and phenotype from traditional breedings of Dabakala (Côte d’Ivoire)
Abstract— A study having for objective the biometric characterization of the local chicken according to the sex and the type of feathering was conducted in the department of Dabakala. A sample of 116 local reared chickens (39 cocks and 77 hens) from traditional breeding was the object of a description by observation, weighing and physical measurement. This study has shown a sexual dimorphism between the cock and the hen. Thus cock’s average weight was 1571.79 ± 60.69 g against 1120.78 ± 29.70 g for the hen. The whole population of chicken weight average was 1272.41 ± 34. 51 g. The eight (8) biometric traits studied were distributed in five (5) phenotypes and three (3) subgroups according to the number of common traits. The biometric parameter that could best serve the determination of body weight of a chicken without actually weighing it, was thoracic perimeter with better correlation with weight.
Keywords— Dabakala, biometric characterization, traditional breeding, local chickens.
Effect of planting density on leucaena leucocephala forage and Woody stems production under arid dry climate
Abstract— Lack of year round supply of forage for animal feed is common in most parts of dry lands. leucaenaleucocephala is one of most widely used dry season tree legume forage. In this study, the effect of planting density on forage and woody stems production was investigated. Three different planting spacing corresponding to (40X40 cm, 60X60 cm and 80X80 cm) were applied to tests its effects on tree growth and yield. Tree height and diameter were measured before every cutting harvest. In addition to that fresh and dry matter production of both stems and forage (tons/ha), stems, and leaves dry weight ratios over time were determined. The study revealed that different planting densities were resulted in very high significant effects on forage and stem production. Tree height was affected by planning density in most of the harvests, while diameter showed significant difference among the treatments in only one harvest. Planting trees at 40 cm distance produced higher forage yield with smaller woody stems sizes, whereas 60 and 80 cm spacing resulted in lesser forage yield, but with bigger stems size. This indicates that planting trees at closer spacing produce higher wood and forage yield, but the wood with smaller sizes. There is also, observed seasonal variation in production in which hot weather lowered yield. The stems and leaves dry matter ratio revealed that leaves production is slightly higher than stem production and were not affected by planting density. The results conclude that planting leucaena in closer spacing in arid lands will supply a considerable amount of forage as supplementary feed in addition to wood that can be used for different purposes.
Keywords— planting density, forage production, wood stems.
Production and Productivity Increase of Milch Animals through the Supply of Green and Dry Fodder in Non-Delta Districts of Tamil Nadu
Abstract— In India, fodder production is less than the demand and hence deficit is noticed in different states with varying per cent of deficit observed in many states. To alleviate the deficiency of green and dry fodder and to maximize the fodder production for increased a productivity of livestock was studied among 310 respondents of 23 non-delta districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that, gain among different types of faming, increased quantum of feeding and increased body weight gain and daily average milk yield among the indigenous as well as cross breed animals.
Keywords— fodder production, weight gain, milk yield, productivity.
Milk Ketone Bodies Assessment in A Local Italian Cow Breed (Modenese) vs. Holstein and Characterization of its Physiological, Reproductive and Productive Performances
Abstract— In Northern Italy are present several autochthonous cattle breeds characterized by a small territorial diffusion. These breeds were breed for century the milk and meat production but also for work. The technical data show that these animals have a good reproductive performances and disease resistance and resilience. The objective of this study was to characterize some productive, reproductive and metabolic parameters (ketone bodies) in the Italian autochthonous cattle breeds Modenese, comparing them with those of Holstein and crossbred (F1=Modenese x Holstein; F2=Modenese x F1) breed in the same farm in order to understand if there is a different metabolic situation that can influence the reproductive performances. The milk samples have been taken at different times of lactation. Milk samples have been collected from the whole udder during morning milking and from a lactometer and analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to obtain the ketone bodies concentration. The reproductive (Open Days Period and number of Services Per Pregnancy) and productive (percentage and kg of protein between the 40th and 90th DIM) data have been recovered by the consultation of the farm registers and the APA (Provincial breeder association) data. On days open, number of services per pregnancy, % of proteins in milk, and kg of proteins in milk, a Spearman correlation analysis was applied. The comparative study between the races in the same breeding conditions is a fundamental tool to understand the correct reproductive and productive physiology of dairy cattle. Among the ketone bodies concentration, the Modenese breed showed a significant (p<0,05) lower concentration. A high concentration of ketone bodies is related with serious negative energy balance condition that can affect the reproductive performances. The F1, F2 and Modenese showed also better reproductive performances compared to Holstein, with a day’s open length in average between the 80-105 days. In conclusion, the better resilience against the negative energy balance and his adverse effects of Modenese cattle could be one of the phenomena underlying their better reproductive efficiency.
Keywords— Italian autochthonous cattle breeds, dairy cows, ketone bodies, reproduction, production.
Mulching and Tied Ridges as A Moisture Conservation Strategy to Improve the Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) in Semi-Arid Parts of Swaziland
Abstract— An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of soil moisture conservation techniques on improving sorghum yield in a semi-arid rural area of Swaziland. The four treatments were; planting sorghum on flat soil (F), planting on tied ridges (T), planting on mulched soil (M) and planting on a combination of tied ridges and mulch (TM). Sorghum planted on flat soil was used as control in the experiment. The sorghum variety 8625 was planted. The experiment was complete randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times. The parameters measured were; grain yield, total biomass yield, soil moisture suction and grain moisture content at harvest. The grain yields from all the other treatments (mulching, tied ridges, tied ridges with mulching) were higher than those of the control (flat planting). The grain yield from TM was the highest at an average of 10.002 tons/ha. It was significantly different from that of T and F (p<0.05). The grain yields for M, T and F were 8.790 tons/ha, 8.202 tons/ha and 6.785 tons/ha respectively. Total dry matter yield was the highest for TM, at 36.980 tons/ha. Soil moisture suction for TM was the lowest at 11.6 centibars, indicating that moisture was readily available to the crop for a longer period than all the other treatments. Grain moisture content for all the treatments was below 20%, and the mean grain moisture content for all the treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05). The results showed that a combination of tied ridges and mulching provided superior results in terms of grain yield, dry matter yield and soil moisture suction. Mulching and tied ridges also yielded results that were better than the control (F).
Keywords— Mulching, semi-arid, sorghum, tied ridges.
Abstract— The water quality was studied for selected samples from groundwater and network water-supply. The values of NH3, NO3–, pH, TDS, alkalinity, hardness, Pb, Cd, Fe3+ and Mn2+ were estimated. Ammonia values ranged between 0.07-0.7 ppm. Nitrate values ranged between 2.4 and 0.35 ppm. The TDS was between 645 ppm and 480 ppm. For Fe3+ and Mn2+ the values are below the limits of WHO except for well 9; and manganese in wells 6-10. Several wells showed values of Cd above the Saudi STD. The network water-supply in Tabuk city was investigated. The TDS values for these samples were between 500-600 ppm. The hardness values exceed the Saudi STD limit. When ammonia was tested, only one sample showed high value. Chloride level was below 158 ppm, but sulfate values for most samples were 128-222 ppm. For iron only one sample (well no. 9) was above the permissible limit.
Keywords— water quality, Tabuk city, groundwater, network water-supply, heavy metal levels.
Abstract— Orange flesh melons (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus) is widely cultivated in Brazil, especially in the Northeast region. The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation at doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on the carotenoids, sugars, volatile, flavor and sensory characteristics. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) were used to identify and quantify carotenoids, sugars and volatile compounds. Sensorial analysis was performed by untrained tasters using a just right scale. Were evaluated the suitability of the intensity of firmness. There were no significant changes in the parameters of pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids analyzed on samples. Determinations of total carotenoids, volatile compounds, the levels of sugar and flavor and firmness parameters indicated that the best irradiation dose was 0.5 kGy. The orange melon is good source of carotenoids (23,800μg.100g-1), being the major compound β-carotene, can be employed to combat hypovitaminosis A.
Keywords— carotenoids, GC-MS, HPLC, irradiation, orange melon.
Characteristics of pulp and oil from Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) after different post-harvest treatments and storage
Abstract— The Macauba Palm fruits (Acrocomia aculeata) can be a promising source of vegetable oil for food purposes, cosmetics and energy, due to the high productivity and by generate two types of oils. However, the main problem is associated with the rapid deterioration of the fruit and the pulp oil acidification. Thus the preservation of fruit quality requires the development and application of appropriate techniques that must starts in the harvest, go through post-harvest treatment, storage, preparation and ends in the extraction of its oils. The objective of this study was to identify post-harvest treatments using simple and inexpensive techniques that promote the preservation of Macauba fruit and pulp oil during 30 days of storage. The results indicate that in order to maintaining the quality of the fruit and its oil the recommendation is to realize the processing in a shorter time after harvest.
Keywords— Acrocomia aculeata, Macauba pulp oil, post-harvest treatments.
Carbohydrate changes during dormancy release in floral, vegetative buds and bark tissues of pear cultivar ‘Wonhwang’ cuttings following dormancy breaking agents treatment
Abstract— The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and thiourea on dormancy release and carbohydrates metabolism in floral, vegetative buds and bark tissues of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Wonhwang’. Selected cutting were immersed in appropriate solutions of HC, thiourea and dH2O as a control while cultured in forcing condition for 5 weeks. Our results showed that both the treatments were more effective in dormancy release of both floral and vegetative buds as compared to control. However, the cuttings treated with HC started the floral and vegetative budbreak after 5 and 7 days of treatment followed by thiourea 7 and 9 days and control 13 and 13 days respectively. 50% floral budbreak was observed after 18, 22 and 30 days of treatment during forcing, on cutting treated with HC, thiourea and control while 50% vegetative budbreak was noted on cuttings treated with HC and thiourea after 22 and 26 days treatment during forcing. For control, 49.3% vegetative budbreak was observed after five week during forcing. Mean time to budbreak (MTB) for both floral and vegetative buds was less for HC followed by thiourea and control. HC and thiourea application caused an abrupt increase in starch hydrolysis and a transient accumulation of soluble sugars in buds and bark tissues during the first five and ten days after treatment. These variations, which happened shortly after HC and thiourea application, seemed to be linked with a process leading to endo-dormancy release. In fact, as budbreak started, we observed a rapid decline in sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in all treated tissue, while these concentrations remained high in untreated tissues and then decreased when starch concentration started to increase. Sorbitol concentration increased in treated and untreated floral buds up to 20 days in the same trend and then decreased. Our data suggest that the difference in the timing of soluble sugars accumulation/consumption process between HC, thiourea applications and control cuttings may account for the differences in the timing of growth resumption and budbreak growth.
Keywords— Carbohydrates; Dormancy; Dormancy breaking agents; Pyrus pyrifolia; Stem cuttings.
Abstract— An investigation into the effects of low light (»meanPPFD169-493mMs-1m-1), red light (»meanPPFD657-843mMs-1m-1) and normal light (»meanPPFD1061-1260mMs-1m-1) on physiological changes including yield attributes, nutritional status at Panicle initiation (PI), flowering and harvest stages in winter rice (genotype: Monoharsali) was carried out from 40 days after transplanting (DAT) to crop maturity under both pot and field conditions. There was reduction in available PPFD at flowering as compared to PI stage of the crop. The genotype exhibited significantly higher total dry matter (TDM) and lower leaf area index (LAI) values at normal light or red light than at reduced light situation. The bio-economical yield and harvest index (HI) under normal light exceeded those at low light regime. The yield attributes viz., number of panicles, number of field grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight (test weight), high density (HD) grains, potential 1000 grain weight and sink capacity were superior at normal or red light to low light condition. Higher the total carbohydrate contents in grains, higher were the sink capacity with the normal /red light illuminations at harvest stage. At PI stage, leaf nitrogen content was reduced by low light, but it increased at flowering stage significantly. Grain protein contents, under normal/red light exceeded its value at low light treatment. A positive correlation of most of the yield attributes with grain yield at normal/red light, and a negative correlation of these parameters were found at low light conditions.
Keywords— low light, red light, white light, PPFD, HI, test weight, HD grains, Sink capacity.
Abstract— A computer programme was developed to estimate fuel consumption rate in liter per hour for medium agric-tractor with load and without load under different soil conditions. The programme enables the user to insert the input data through the input interface and obtain the output rapidly. The model was verified, validated and tested by using data from literature and a private agricultural services company in Sudan, for two types of heavy disc harrow (AH280, BH360), (H56,CH65C) driven by challenger track tractors, on the other hand, seeder and ridger separately operated with wheeled 4WD tractors. It was also tested by data from Sennar Agricultural Services Center, using heavy disc harrow with 4WD tractor. The sensitivity analysis showed that the change in any of input parameters, e.g. speed, unit draft, engine power affected directly the estimated fuel consumption rate. Accordingly, the computer programme performed very well in estimating fuel consumption and can be used as a good guide to the farmer or any interested person in machinery management and for quick decision-making.
Keywords— Computer, programming, prediction, fuel, tractor, consumption.
Simulated versus Satellite Retrieval Distribution Patterns of the Snow Water Equivalent over Southeast Europe
Abstract— Snow is a very important component of the climate system which controls surface energy and water balances. Its high albedo, low thermal conductivity and properties of surface water storage impact regional to global climate. The various properties characterizing snow are highly variable and so have to be determined as dynamically active components of climate. However, on large spatial scales the properties of snow are not easily quantified either from numerical modelling or observations. Since neither observations (ground measurements or satellite retrievals) nor models alone are capable of providing enough adequate information about the time space variability of snow properties, it becomes necessary to combine their information. In the presented study the obtained with the regional climate model RegCM snow water equivalent (SWE) on monthly basis over Southeast Europe for a time window of 14 consecutive winters is compared with the Globsnow satellite product. The concordance between both datasets is evaluated with number of statistical scores. The result reveals the principal agreement between the two products, but however, with very significant discrepancies, mainly overestimations, for some years and gridcells.
Keywords— Snow water equivalent, Satellite observation, RegCM simulation, Globsnow product, Datasets comparison.
Transcriptional regulation of functional genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB family transcriptional factors in plants
Abstract— MYB transcription factor family is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom, specifically characterized by a Helix-turn-helix domain in their structural configuration with two repeats of R2R3 MYB domain and are known for regulating plant stress tolerance (abiotic and biotic) through ABA dependent signaling systems. R2R3- MYB family transcription factors plays a role in the regulation of specific downstream genes of Very Long Chain Fatty Acid Biosynthesis like KCS1, KCS2, KCS6 and KCR1, related to water use efficiency traits like cuticular wax biosynthesis. Analysis of R2R3-MYB family transcription factors regulating the production of cuticular wax emphasizes the value of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. Some MYB transcription factors like MYB96, MYB94, MYB41, MYB30, MYB106 and MYB16 isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) are studied with respect to their role in biosynthesis of cuticular waxes under environmental stress signals. In the present review we intensely focused on the elucidation of R2R3- MYB family transcription factors MYB96, MYB94, MYB41, MYB30, MYB106 and MYB16 role in cuticular wax biosynthesis and aid in the development of transgenics for enhanced stress tolerance.
Keywords— MYB transcription factors, cuticular wax biosynthesis, Very Long Chain Fatty Acids, KCS1 and MYB 96.
Presentation of Four Centennial-long Global Gridded Datasets of the Standardized Precipitation Index
Abstract— In this article four global gridded datasets of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are presented. They are computed from four different data sources: UDEL/GEOG/CCR v3.02, GPCC/ v7.0, NOAA-CIRES 20CR v2c and ECMWF ERA-20C each covering more than a century-long period. The SPI is calculated for the most frequently used time windows of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. UDEL/GEOG/CCR v3.02 and GPCC/ v7.0 are used in the highest native resolution of 0.5×0.5° whilst NOAA-CIRES 20CR v2c and ECMWF ERA-20C are interpolated at 1.5×1.5° and 0.5×0.5° correspondingly. In contrast to some other indices, for example the popular Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), SPI has significant advantages such as simplicity, suitability on variable time scales and robustness rooted in a solid theoretical development. SPI has been selected by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a key indicator for monitoring drought (‘Lincoln declaration’). As a result, drought monitoring centres worldwide are effectively exploiting this index and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) are encouraged to use it for monitoring meteorological droughts. These facts and the strong conviction of the authors that the free exchange of data and software services are а basis of effective scientific collaboration, are the main motivators to provide these datasets free of charge at ftp://xeo.cfd.meteo.bg/SPI/. The paper briefly presents some possible applications of the SPI data, revealing its suitability for various objective long-term drought studies at any geographical location.
Keywords— Global Gridded Data-sets of SPI, Objective Drought Assessment, Free SPI-data Download.
Abstract— The aim of this study was to map comprehensively as the basis for the implementation of technologies that met the needs of dairy farmers. Specifically, the objectives were: to analyze the marketing and institutional characteristics of dairy industryy in rural farmers. The target population is dairy farmers in Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java Provinces. The numbers of samples were selected in nine dairy cooperatives, which were three cooperatives represented each province, three milk processing industries, and totally 270 farmers as respondents. Data were taken such as demographic characteristic of farmers, farmer groups, and marketing line of milk distribution from farmers to consumers. The results showed that the institutional environment of dairy industry and governance both from Cental Java, Yogyakarta and East Java need handlers more serious, it can be seen from the dependence of farmers on the institutions that exist including cooperatives and milk processing industries still high. From the aspect of livestock farming, cows in East Java showed better performance than the two other major regions, namely Central Java and Yogyakarta. Distribution and marketing of milk which is currently still depends on the institutional binding of cooperative, and dairy processing industry, and there has been no increase of participation in enhancing the value chain.
Keywords— Institutionalization, marketing, dairy cattle, smallholder farmer.