IMJ Health : May 2017

Medical Journal: Published volume-3, Issue-5, May 2017 with ad publications

Chikungunya fever in children: A Descriptive Study

Abstract—In the Indian sub-continent, first isolation of the chikungunya virus was done in Kolkata during 1963. During 2006 reports of large scale outbreaks in several parts of India have confirmed the re-emergence of this virus in the country. Since the incidence of this disease is increasing. So a retrospective analysis of laboratory confirmed chikungunya patients admitted to pediatric ward was done to study biochemical profile of chikungunya fever in children. Total 51 children were laboratory confirmed for chickungunya, 36 of them had isolated chikungunya infection. Male/female ratio of isolated chikungunya was 2.6:1. Fever was invariably present, associated constitutional symptoms consisted of skin rash, vomiting, diarrhea, pain abdomen, cough, corrhyza, myalgia and bleeding manifestations. The most characteristic feature of the infections in infants was skin manifestations in form of symmetrical superficial vesiculobullous lesions & maculopapular erythematous rash. Nine patients (25%) had neurological manifestations. Joint pain was present in only three patients but none had arthritis. Most common hematological abnormality revealed thrombocytopenia in 39% cases. There was mild to moderate elevation of liver enzymes in 13 patients (36%). Average length of hospital stay was 5.1 days. Thirty four patients recovered completely & two left against medical advise. It is concluded from this study that skin manifestations and neurological manifestations are common in younger age group apart from other constitutional symptoms. Arthralgia and chronic polyarthritis is rare in this age group as found in adults.

Keyword: Chikungunya in Children; Viral Fever; Vesiculobullous Lesions.

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Paraquat Poisoning (Lethal Herbicide):A Rare Case Report

Abstract— Paraquat, chemically 1, 1’ dimethyl-4-4’-bipyridinium, is a green colored herbicide. It is one of the most lethal herbicide and is hazardous in very small quantities. More than 93% of deaths by paraquat are suicidal in nature. Poisoning by paraquat is commoner in developing countries because of agriculture based economy. The presentation of paraquat poisoning varies from case to case and depends on the amount consumed. As the compound is highly lethal, an early suspicion & management is must to prevent complications. Present case is of paraquat poisoning with full blown early picture of mucosal ulceration, pneumonitis and acute kidney injury which later on complicated in esophageal perforation, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum.

Keywords: Paraquat, AKI, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumonitis.

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Perinatallethal Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type II A with white sclerae:A Case Report

Abstract— Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a genetic connective tissue disorder. It has clinically heterogeneous four types. Type 2 is the most severe and perinatally lethal form having small thorax, curved limbs and blue/gray sclerae. It is further subclassified into 3 types. A baby with sign and symptoms with macrocephaly, retrognathia, low set ears, widely placed eyes with white sclerae, complete cleft palate, narrow chest, curved and shortened limbs, B/L CTEV, left undescended testis with hypospadiasis was reported. This rare case was thoroghly examined and investigated which came out to a case of ‘Osteogenesis Imperfecta type 2 A’ having white sclerae. So case having such symptoms were should be investigated for Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

Keywords: Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type 2, White Sclerae, Genetic disorder, Perinatally lethal condition.

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Fungal infections in Otorhinolaryngology: A Descriptive Study

Abstract—Fungal organisms are ubiquitous. A common location for these organisms to enter the human body is through the external acoustic canal, oral cavity, and pharynx and sino-nasal cavity. A study was conducted with clinical and mycological analysis of various fungal infections in ENT. Patients suspected for having fungal infections attending at Department of ENT were interrogated and analysed. Swabs collected from these cases were sent for direct microscopy by KOH mounts for fungal examination and fungal culture. Microbiological confirmed 100 cases were finally included in the study Histopathological examination of nasal mass and polyposis was also done. It was observed in this present study otomycosis was most common and accounted for 84% of the total cases followed by candidiasis in oral cavity and pharynx in 9%, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis in 4% and rhinosporidiosis in 3%. Aspergillus niger was that most common fungus isolated in 61% cases, followed by Candida albicans in 24% cases, Aspergillus flavus in 9% cases, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhinosporodium seeberi in 3% cases each. All the cases of fungal infection of oral cavity and oropharynx were due to Candida albicans.

Keyword: Fungal infection, Otomycosis, Aspergillus, Candida.

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Variation in origin of Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery: A Case Report

Abstract— Profunda femoris artery and its branches are extensively used in different diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Knowledge about the anatomical variations is important to prevent iatrogenic complications. During routine dissection for teaching medical graduates, a variant vascular pattern of lateral circumflex femoral arteries was observed in an adult cadaver. The Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery was found to be arising directly from the Femoral Artery on its posterior aspect, 7.0 cm distal to the inguinal ligament on the left side.

Keywords: Profunda Femoris Artery, Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery, Femoral Artery.

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Effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on the ovarian and uterine tissues and fetal parameters: Comparative Interventional Study

Abstract— Agave sisalana (Agavaceae), commonly known as sisal plant has an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, bactericidal and insecticidal activities. Its toxic effects on female reproduction are unknown. This comparative interventional study aimed to assess the ovarian and uterine tissues and fetal parameters of rats treated with the extract of sisal waste (100 mg kg-1 body weight), obtained from decortications of the A. sisalana. The control received distilled water. The treatments were performed orally for 30 consecutive days. The results showed that the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue were not affected by plant extract. There was an significant increase (p<0.05)in the thickness of perimetrium in females treated with A. sisalana. The placental and litter weights also increased significantly whereas the litter size significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the group receiving the extract. In conclusion, A. sisalana showed no pathological changes in the ovaries and uterine endometrium, but had a negative effect on the litter size and weight.

Keywords: Sisal, Gonadotoxicity, Reproduction Fetotoxicity.

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Bio-Socio-demographic Risk factors of Gestational Diabetes: A Case Control Study

Abstract—India is second largest country to have people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in world. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has bad pregnancy outcomes so this present case control study was conducted on 50 pregnant women (ANCs) with GDM and 50 normal ANCs to assess the bio-socio-demographic risk factors of Gestational Diabetes. It was found that GDM was significantly associated with age, religion, residence and BMI of woman. GDM was found significantly more with increasing age and increasing BMI. ANCs residing in urban areas and belonging to Muslim religion were more pron to have GDM than their counter parts. Family history of diabetes also favors in occurrence of GDM. So clinicians should increase GDM screening at first ANC visit and prompt treatment is recommended to prevent complication. Early identification of woman at risk of GDM may prevent maternal and perinatal morbidity.

KeywordGestational Diabetes Mellitus, Risk factors, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Bio-socio-demographic factors.

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