Management of Noorda blitealis Wlk. on Moringa oleifera Lam. using biorationals in the home gardens of Jaffna district, Sri Lanka
Abstract— Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the main crops grown for pods and leaves in Jaffna home gardens in Sri Lanka. After the introduction of Periyakulam 1 (PKM 1) Moringa, a leaf eating caterpillar (Noorda blitealis Wlk.) turned out to be a serious pest causing damage to the leaves. Considering the severity of the damage, this study was carried out to find out the suitable biorationals to manage the pest in an eco-friendly method. Using the leaf disc dipping method biorationals such as 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract and 2.5g/L neem leaf extract were used to determine the larval mortality. Consumption of the treated leaf area was measured to determine the larval antifeedant activity for 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract, (2.5g/L) neem leaf extract, 15% (g/mL) garlic extract and 75% fermented cow urine and ash solution. Distilled water was used as control in both experiments. The experiments were carried out at a temperature of 28.9 ± 1.13°C and 73% relative humidity in complete randomized design. On the 6th day after treatment larval mortality in 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract and 2.5g/L neem leaf extract were 85%, 83.33% and 70% respectively. After 24 hours larvae fed with 1% neem oil, 3% neem seed kernel extract, (2.5g/L) neem leaf extract, 15% (g/mL) garlic extract and 75% fermented cow urine and ash solution showed a larval antifeedant activity of 85.51%, 84.84%, 74.18%, 76.13% and 48.16% respectively.
Keywords— Moringa oleifera, Noorda blitealis, Biorationals, Home garden.
Abstract— The method that humanity has adopted to hydrate and thus give life to the plants, imitating the model that was most visible, is the rain. However, the great secret to the contribution of nutrients to the vegetables, the irrigation itself, is on earth, in the groundwater layers and aquifers that hoard and administer the water, keeping every drop of rain and distributing the water through the basins, underground rivers, watering indirectly from the mountain to the sea. The key is in the different circulation velocities of the groundwater because of the nature of the substrates. However, agriculture has taken irrigation from above as we know it and has focused especially on drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for irrigated agriculture, but may be the only source of irrigation water in large arid regions, especially in developing countries, where the extreme scarcity of freshwater and the rapidly growing population require more water.
When considering the possibility of watering with seawater without desalinating, always by means of capillarity systems, it is essential to take into consideration the different strata of soils, the distance to the groundwater, the composition of seawater, the capacity of drainage, chemical reactions of the soil with salts, etc. The modification of any of these parameters can produce effects of salinization, loss of humidity or desertification among others.
This study presents the accumulated experience through the joint collaboration between the Centre for Research in Security and food Control of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (CRESCA) and the Aqua Maris Foundation in capillary irrigation and it proposes a system and device that allows the controlled development of different vegetal species using brackish and seawater.
Keywords— desertification, desalination, reuse, underground stream seawater.
Abstract – Given the greater varietal supply of the globe artichoke and evaluating its use for human consumption, it is important to carry out market positioning work, including the recognition of the newly available cultivars. Sensory analysis comes up as an important instrument to assess the potential of insertion of artichoke into the market. Within this perspective, the aim of the present study was to determine the sensorial quality characteristics of three globe artichoke cultivars produced in the Rosario´s Horticultural Belt and associated with the preference of consumers. The cultivars were Opal, Madrigal and Romanesco. For sensory evaluation, the method called CATA (Check All That Apply) was used. The results of the CATA test were analyzed using multivariate statistics, applying the Correspondence Analysis. The most distinguishing elements between artichokes were the color and aroma. When associating these results with which was the artichoke that consumers liked the most, it was observed that the Romanesco obtained the best rating. Consumers preferred sweet and tender artichokes. This information could guide the production strategies of the horticulturists to offer cultivars that meet these characteristics.
Key words: artichoques, sensory analysis, CATA.
Hepatitis A virus and environmental quality indicators in aquatic ecosystems for oyster farming in the Northeast of the State of Pará, Brazil
Abstract – Research into the occurrence of microbiological contaminants, including hepatitis A virus (HAV), in river waters intended for oyster farming is of extreme importance for public health. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of HAV in the aquatic environment for ostreiculture in northeastern Pará, Brazil, and correlate with microbiological, physico-chemical and climatological variables. The HAV research was based on the method of water concentration by filtration membrane adsorption-elution and in the organic flocculation method with skim milk, followed by Nested-PCR. Quantification of coliforms, Enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria was performed. The physico-chemical variables were measured with multiparametric probe and spectrophotometry. Positive samples were purified and submitted to sequencing. From March 2017 to December 2018, 203 samples of river water were collected and analyzed in the municipalities of Augusto Corrêa, Curuçá, Salinópolis and São Caetano de Odivelas. In 10.8% of the analyzed samples the HAV RNA was detected, in all localities the HAV was classified in genotype IB. There was no significant difference between the concentration methods of the water samples. The only physicochemical variable that most influenced HAV detection was dissolved oxygen. Regarding the bacterial indicators, the highest statistical significance occurred with thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli. The detection of HAV in the four municipalities studied shows that the virus is circulating in the aquatic environment and, therefore, in the community. In this context, more effective hygienic-sanitary measures are necessary in these communities dedicated to oyster farming.
Keywords— Hepatitis A Virus, Quality Indicators, Water and Ostreiculture.