Changes in Aflatoxins Contents of the Maize (Zea Mays L.) Stored in Clay Granaries with use of Biopesticides from Rural Conditions and Estimation of their Intake

Abstract Maize protection without any risks for human health and environment concerns might be valued on alternative uses of pest control methods that do not only rely on synthetic insecticides. A combination of leaves derived from Lippia multiflora Moldenke and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Benth were tested for their protective effect on the aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains stored in traditional and improved granaries in Côte d’Ivoire. Thus, 4 aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were determined with high performance liquid chromatography according to the official method of AOAC. Results showed presence of afltatoxins in 58% of samples, and specifically aflatoxin B1 from half the samples, with rather higher levels than the reference values of the European Union. The levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 resulted from both maize cobs and grains treated with biopesticides (from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 2.18-50.70 µg/kg) were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control granaries (ranging from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 12.48-346.15 µg/kg). In the treated maize, the aflatoxins levels increased slightly during 6 months of storage, while the untreated maize cobs were with significant increasing of the same toxins traits month after month. For each stage, aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains did not differ whether they are treated in traditional or improved granaries with both plant materials.

The estimated risk of exposure in aflatoxins, specifically in total aflatoxins and AFB1, deriving with intakes of maize stored for 6 months are respectively 114.37±2.2 ng/kg body weight/day and 36.21±0.11 ng/kg body weight/day for the untreated granaries and 7.15±0.04 ng/kg body weight/day and 2.12±0.17 ng/kg body weight/day for the treated granaries. These levels are strongly higher than the maximal Reference Value (0.15 pg/kg body weight/day) tolerated for Toxicity exposure. Therefore, it’s necessary to sensitize, on a larger scale, actors of maize path, namely farmers, retailers, processers and consumers about such mycotoxins in maize products for providing health safety to Ivorian populations.

Keywords stored maize, biopesticides, traditional and improved granaries, intake of aflatoxins, health risk.

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