Abstract— Pregnancy is highly precious for every couple but presence of risk factors that cause prematurity, post maturity and various other conditions that complicate the pregnancy have adverse effects. Gross examination of the placenta may provide useful information about the etiology of newborn and maternal complications. Hence it is important to study relationships between placental abnormalities, gestational age and occurrence of adverse outcome. So, this study aims to compare the macroscopic morphology of human placenta in preterm, term and post-term pregnancy. A hospital based comparative observational study conducted on placentae of 40 pre-term, 40 term and 40 post-term. Shape, weight, diameter, thickness, mode of insertion of umbilical cord, number of cotyledons and arrangement of chorionic vessels was observed of each placenta included in the study. These variables of palcentae were compared as per pre-term, term and post-term. Significance of difference was determined by Chi-square test. This study revealed that most of the placentae were discoidal in shape. And the weight as well as diameter of the term placentae were significantly more from preterm placentae. Likewise weight and diameter both of the post term placentae were significantly more form term placentae. Regarding thickness of placentae, term placentae thickness were more from preterm placentae and post-term placentae were more from term placentae but it was found significant in term to preterm not in term to post-term. So it can be concluded from this study that as gestational period increases weight, diameter and thickness of placenta increases. Observing the facts, more studies are suggested to explore the other variables related to placenta and its relation to pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: Placenta, Macroscopic anatomy of Placenta, Pregnancy Outcomes.
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