Abstract—Theories of sociology of health and illness defy the biomedical model of disease as many of them are ‘concerned with the social origins and influence on disease’ rather than pathological reasons only. There are five sociological perspectives of health and illness: Social Constructionism, Marxism, Feminism, Foucaulian analysis, and Functionalism. These different sociological perspectives were critically analyzed through this article as for better understanding of conceptualize management of health services Social Constructionism is a sociological perspective focus on the sociology of knowledge and reality. Marxism focuses on equity between social classes and emphasizes inequality in capitalist society. According to Marxism inequality of distribution healthcare services in capitalist society arise from the marginalization of some categories of the population who do not contribute to economic system. Feminist theory is to understand and explore the multiple and various reasons for inequalities between the genders. In the healthcare sector, feminists believe that healthcare organizations are hierarchical systems, where doctors (usually men) are at the top level while nurses (usually women) have a lower level of importance. Main areas that Foucault theory emphasizes are power, knowledge and discourse. Foucault believes that there is a relationship between power and knowledge. This relationship appears clearly in the health field, as medical professionals comprise a group of people who have special knowledge (medical knowledge) and they gain the power from this knowledge. Finally, functionalism is a sociological perspective that describes society as a system made up of ‘interconnected and interrelated parts’ and it highlights the relationships between different parts of society In conclusion, the five sociological perspectives provide holistic picture about conceptualization of healthcare systems.
Keywords— Social Constructionism, Marxism, Feminism, Foucaulian analysis, Functionalism
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