The Effect of Different 2, 4-D Doses on Callus Induction and Chromosomal Structure in Maize (Zea Mays L.)

Abstract This research in which the matured embryos of 10 registered common corn varieties grown in Turkey (Pioneer 31N27, Pioneer 31P41, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 34N24, ADA 8924, DKC 6022, BC 666, TECTOR, ADA 523 and HELEN) were used as plant materials was carried out in Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Turkey. In the stage of in vitro of this research which was arranged in vitro and in vivo media, the effect on callus induction and plant regeneration in 6 different varieties of 2,4-D doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/l) through callus culture was investigated. In the stage of in vivo, samples from the root tips composed of the callus of all maize varieties were taken, and the changes observed in the chromosomal numbers in maize lines were evaluated. As a result of the microscopic analyses of the root tips obtained through the application of 2,4-D auxin in different corn varieties in different doses, changes were observed in the chromosomal numbers of Pioneer 31N27 (2n=18), Pioneer 3223 (2n=19) and Pioneer 34N24 (2n=19) maize varieties. Mitotic anomaly observed through the application of  2,4-D was established as aneuploidy (the change of the chromosomal number in genome) and it was found to form as the decrease of the chromosomal number (hipoploidy). According to the data found, the dose of 2,4-D to be used in the transgenic maize producing studies to be utilized in Turkey was determined to be 2 mg/l providing the highest callus formation ratio but causing no chromosomal deviations.

Keywords Zea mays, Corn, Maize, Callus Induction, Chromosomal Number.

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