Effects of Cigarette and Shisha Smoking on Hematological Parameters: An analytic case-control study

Abstract Cigarette smoking is one of the major causes of cancer and cardiovascular diseases leading to millions of premature deaths each year all over the world. Scientists have identified about 4,000 different substances in tobacco all of which have certain degree of toxic effects. At least 43 of them known carcinogens.

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the extent of adverse effect of cigarette and shisha on haematological parameters in male population of Khartoum State – Sudan.

Subject and Methods: One hundred and fifty male subjects participated in this study, cigarette smoker (n= 50), shisha smoker (n= 50) and non-smoker (n= 50). The smokers were regularly smoking at least for 10 years. Fresh peripheral blood samples from healthy adult non-smokers and smokers (males) were collected and analysed for Red Blood Cells (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) content, packed cell volume (PCV), MCV, MCH and MCHC, total and differential leucocytes (WBC) counts and total platelets count by using fully automatic haematological analyser.

Results: The smokers of cigarette and shisha had significantly higher level of Hb, HCT, RBCs, TWBC count and MCHC. However, platelets counts were significantly lower in cigarette smokers than that of non-smokers. Study shows that the duration of smoking had no significant effect on haematological parameters except Hb.

Conclusion: It concluded that smoking alters haematological parameter that is injurious to health.

Key words: Cigarette, Shisha, Smoking, Haematology

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