Effects of heavy metals’ toxicity on plants and enhancement of plant defense mechanisms of Si-mediation “Review”

Abstract Today’s [e.g., “heavy metals (HMs)”] caused by anthropogenic activities have negative impacts on our environment and food productions. HMs can be classified as either essential or nonessential. A trace of essential HMs, such as Cu, Mo, and Zn, can be necessary for plant metabolism, but excess of them can harm the plant growth and development. Nonessential HMs, however, are toxic for plant metabolism and have damaging effects on enzyme activity, photosynthetic properties, cell membrane, permeability and eventually plant growth. Plants with avoidance and tolerance against stress could manage extreme HM stress in soils so that with special mechanisms, such as specific translation and metal accumulation, can elevate abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Moreover, in cells with mechanisms such as [e.g., “Metallothionein (MTs)”] (metal binding proteins) or [e.g., “Phytochelatin (PCs)”] storage and crystallization could reduce the HM stress in the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol, tonoplast and vacuoles. Meanwhile, the role of Si-mediation in detoxification of HMs is so bold. Si-mediation with increasing antioxidant, reducing lipid peroxidation, and increasing efficiency of photosynthetic properties elevates the HMs and other biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

Keywords HMs, stress, cells defense mechanism, Silicon.

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Agriculture Journal::Effects of heavy metals' toxicity on plants and enhancement of plant defense mechanisms of Si-mediation: Review

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