Host resistance breeding against the virus diseases of soybean in Nepal

Abstract Soybean is a miracle legume crop of Nepal which shares 7% out of total legume production and ranks third position after lentil (MOAD, 2015). Being high nutritious legume crop helps to food & nutritional security and sustainable soil management in the system niches. Soybean is mainly consumed as roasted bean or green pod as vegetable and grown in either rice bund or intercropped with maize in mid hills of Nepal. It has a great potentiality for commercial cultivation in terai/inner terai, as soybean is becoming one of the important ingredient of poultry feed which is well thriving in Nepal. However the national productivity of soybean was very low due to the vulnerable to virus diseases. There is a long list of diseases that infect soybean and many diseases are of soil borne nature and pathogens survive in the soil for a long period of time. MYMV are the important diseases of soybean observed in terai/ inner terai region of Nepal. White fly (BemisiatabaciGenn.) transmitted Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been a serious threat to blackgram, soybean, mungbean and cowpea production in terai / inner terai and foot hills. Yield losses up to 100%, 52.6% and 21% have been reported due to MYMV in blackgram, mungbean and soybean, respectively. Farmers have been using a variety of fungicides indiscriminately which has serious hazardous effects on environment and human health. Efforts to validate farmers’ indigenous knowledge for MYMV management turned futile since no treatment appeared beneficial in susceptible cultivar like Chapbas Local in hot spot location i.e. Rampur. Some genotypes have been observed resistant to MYMV in mungbean while genotypes with durable resistance are scanty in blackgram and soybean. Unavailability of suitable variety for various cropping patterns such as Maize-soybean-toria /other winter crops, Rice+Soybean (Bund Planting) has been realized in the recent years. Released varieties have more or less smaller seed size, susceptible to different foliar diseases Like YMV and longer maturity period (135-145 days), which farmers usually don’t prefer. Varietal differences have been observed in its severity. Chemical control measures are not environmentally friendly. Under such situation use of resistant varieties and manipulations in cultivation practices are important options for the management of grain legume diseases. This approach is accessible to marginal and disadvantaged farmers too. In this context, the main objective of the study was to identify high yielding and resistant to yellow mosaic virus diseases tolerant of soybean suited for existing cropping system. MYMV severity is gradually building up at Rampur, Chitwan. High population of white fly (Bemisiatabaci) observed during the crop season. For this, many local landraces and exotic lines received from IITA and AVRDC were evaluated at Rampur. Three years research results (2012-2014) revealed that soybean genotypes CM9125, G8754, LS-77-16-16, SB0065 and SB0095 showed resistant to MYMV and Chaing Maw 60-63, CM9133, Dhankuta and SJ-4 were moderately resistant in physical observation. These genotypes were promoted in participatory trials to validate at the farmers field and seed increase program at farm level of different agro eco-system. Besides legume breeders are being used it as a parent materials in crossing program to develop disease resistant high yielding varieties at the research station.

Keywords— Soybean, Yellow Mosaic Virus, genotypes, cropping system.

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Agriculture Journal: Host resistance breeding against the virus diseases of soybean in Nepal

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