Abstract— This study chose a large-scale shopping center housed in a typical warehouse-style commercial building as an example to review its fire accident history and to conduct an on-site questionnaire survey to determine the features and conditions of the fire and smoke hazards when this type of building is on fire. The features of the distribution of people and the characteristics of their behavior and responses from the literature were quantified into parameters and inputted into the evacuation model. The FDS+Evac computer simulation software of the performance-based analysis was used to dynamically simulate the amount of time required for evacuation. The present study chose two fire scenarios and, depending on the activation of the fire safety equipment, each scenario was further divided into four more scenarios for discussing their impacts on evacuation. Hazardous impacts from the height of the smoke layer, fire temperature, CO concentration, visibility, and radiation intensity on people during evacuation were simulated and analyzed. The present study further verified and validated the hazardous conditions for the shoppers using the FED value and explored the approach for helping people who need assistance during shopping center evacuation at the time of occurrence. The results show that when fire equipment (smoke exhausts and automatic fire sprinklers) is activated, the majority of people can be evacuated safely. If only one of the equipment is activated, then the activation of the smoke exhaust would work better than the automatic fire sprinklers in protecting people’s lives. For warehouse store fire safety, it is critical to plan the evacuation routes according to the local conditions and enhance guidance for people who need assistance in an emergency evacuation.
Keywords— Warehouse-style commercial buildings, large-scale shopping centers, fire accident simulation, FDS+Evac, Dynamic evacuation simulation.
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