Abstract— Citrus is the third most important fruit crop in the world after apple and bananas, and the total area cultivated with the various Citrus cultivar covers over 7.2 million hectares, yielding total annual production of approximately 100 million metric tons of fruit. The genus Citrus possesses several undesirable characteristic including salt and cold sensitivity they are also susceptible to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Despit substantial genetic diversity and interspecific fertility, the genus Citrus includes some of the most difficult species to breeding. For example, most species are highly heterozygous and produce progeny that segregate widely for many characters when crosses are made. The juvenile periods are often very long, self- and cross-incompatibility and pollen and/or ovule sterility are relatively common, and the presence of adventitious somatic embryos in the nucellus of developing ovules of the most of Citrus greatly limits hybrid production. Genetic transformation is an alternative to overcome these difficulties. For successful transformation, regeneration of whole plants from the transformed cells is a prerequisite. On the other hand production of virus – free plants, development of new cultivars, and production of seedless fruit, production of flavonoid, micropropagation, germplasm conservation and cryopreservation are the other utilities of in vitro culture of Citrus.
Keywords— Citrus, Improvement, Tissue culture.
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