To Experimental Study for Comparison Theodolite and Total Station

Abstract This research paper with how to facilitate and manage surveying instrument theodolite and total satiation and take more accuracy for civil works methods to accomplish modernized and cost effective urban survey with best achievable accuracy. This is done by surveying methods with modern methods from both theoretical and practical point of view. At first, a theoretical assessment process on a tradition urban planning project in India is performed by replacing other instrument of surveying techniques previously used with more applicable surveying techniques as theodolite and total stations, regarding different matters such as applicability, cost and accuracy. After approving the main idea of this modernization process, a practical urban planning case study is performed using total station, geodetic GPS receivers and GPS navigators, on a private sectors The applied surveying techniques showed high efficiency regarding cost and effort, while saving observation time reaching to 80%. Accordingly, the adopted practical application proved to be beneficial for all civil sites.

Keywords Surveying techniques, theodolite, Horizontal Measurements Distances, total station, Stadia, vertical Measurements Distances, receiver.

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Dynamic analyses of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load

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