IJOEAR: April 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-4, April 2018

Phytosanitary Products Action to Control Leaf Miner, Rust and their Influence on Coffee Vigor and Productivity

Abstract The Coffee Leaf Miner – CLM and coffee rust are the main pests and coffee diseases, respectively. One of the rust and CLM handling ways is the preventive use of active ingredients of joint action (fungicide + insecticide) via soil. These products are generally evaluated for their efficiency in the chemical control of pests and diseases; however some of these products may promote a tonic effect by improving plant vigor. Thus, the objective in this work was to verify the influence of the phytosanitary products application on the rust and leaf miner control, on the coffee trees development and production. The assay was installed in Random Block Design – RBD, with twelve treatments T1 – Premier Plus, T2 – Premier Plus and Actara, T3 – Verdadero, T4 – Verdadero and Actara, T5 – Actara, T6 – Actara (Nov/Feb), T7 – Altacor, T8 – Altacor and Actara, T9 – Impact, T10 – Opera, T11- Control and T12 – Practical and three replicates in a Catuaí IAC-144 crop. Number of nodes per branch, productivity, incidence of rust and CLM were evaluated. There was no difference in the coffee trees growth submitted to the application of different phytosanitary products for the control of rust and leaf miner. The application of Thiamethoxan + Cyproconazole in november with a complementary application of Thiamethoxan in february were more efficient for the coffee leaf miner control and provided greater vigor and productivity to the coffee tree.

Keywords Hemileiavastatrix, Leucopteracoffeela, tonic effect.

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Influence of Sulfur and Boron on the growth and yield of Broccoli

Abstract Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of sulfur (S) and boron (B) on yield and yield component of broccoli. Sulfur was applied @ 0 (control), 20 and 40 kg ha-1 as elemental sulfur while B was applied at the rate 0, 1 and 1.5 kg ha-1 as borax along with a basal dose of N,P and K @ 120, 90 and 60 kg ha-1. All the fertilizers were applied at the time of sowing. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The data on plant height, number of leaves, flower diameter, head yield and biological mass were recorded along with S and B concentration in soil after crop harvesting. The result revealed that yield and yield parameter increased with increasing levels of S and B with higher head yield, flower diameter and plant height were observed when 40 kg ha-1 S and 1.5 kg ha-1 B were applied. It was further noted that head yield and head diameter were non-significant when averaged across the B treatment between 20 and 40 kg ha-1 applied S but significant from control. Similarly, when the yield parameters were average across the S treatment, there was a significant and linear increase with higher B level. Soil analysis showed that both B an S concentration in soil increased by increasing level of applied S and B. So the optimum level of S and B for broccoli was 40 and 1.5 kg ha-1respectively for higher yield of broccoli.

Keywords Boron, broccoli, growth and yield, Sulfur.

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About non – coding RNAs

Abstract The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein. Recently, a large number of RNAs have been identified in animal and plants that have little or no protein – coding potential. Such RNA molecules have been discovered by the extensive applications of high – throughput sequencing technology. Non – coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which comprise a significant output of the genomes of prokaryotes and especially eukaryotes, are increasingly implicated in the molecular mechanisms that are being used for responding to biotic and abiotic stresses that occurred in living things life. The ncRNAs are a heterogeneous group of RNA molecules, which can be classified in different ways according to their location, length, and biological functions. In this review a brief description about non – coding RNAs will be brought especially in plants.

Keywords Gene regulation, Non – coding RNAs, Plants.

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Agronomical efficiency of two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties against different level of Nitrogen fertilizer in Subtropical region of Pakistan

Abstract A field study was carried out to at Agriculture Research Institute, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, to investigate the effect of various nitrogen levels on growth and yield contributing traits of two wheat varieties. Wheat varieties Benazir and TJ-83 were evaluated against four nitrogen levels (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1).The results revealed that the effect of nitrogen levels as well as varieties differed significantly for all the growth and yield contributing traits and N @ 150 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum values for plant height (87.66 cm), number of tillers m-2 (265.17), spike length (13.05 cm), number of spikelets spike-1 (22.02), number of grain spike-1 (68.21), seed index (48.80 g) and grain yield (4320 kg ha-1). In varieties, Benazir showed its superiority over its companion variety with 82.91 cm plant height, 224.17 tillers m-2, 10.52 cm spike length, 18.21 spikelets spike-1, 53.00 grains spike-1, 45.29 g seed index and 3649.50 kg ha-1 grain yield. The commercial variety TJ-83 ranked 2nd with 78.33 cm plant height, 207.75 tillers m-2, 11.42 cm spike length, 19.82 spikelets spike-1, 57.31 grains spike-1, 40.98 g seed index and 3143.20 kg ha-1 grain yield. It was observed that treatment interaction N @150 kg × variety Benazir proved to be effective treatment and variety combination for achieving higher wheat yields; while, variety Benazir showed its genetic superiority yielding higher than its companion variety TJ-83.

Keywords Growth parameters, grain yield, Nitrogen, wheat.

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Zeolite membranes to immobilize Catalase

Abstract Processes based on immobilized enzymes have been studied extensively in the last few decades and today are also applied to the safeguard of environmental parameters. In this work, zeolite composite flat membranes with different chemical composition, transition metal, and microporous structures were prepared using in situ and secondary growth crystallization synthesis methods in/on stainless steel porous disks. All zeolite materials were been used in catalase adsorption to analyze the zeolite behavior andthe effect of chemical composition and structure on interaction with the enzyme. This study shows that the electrostatic type of interaction seems to be of the utmost importance in influencing immobilization, while the zeolite Brönsted acidity of the support is the subordinate parameter, which differentiates the adsorption performances of different zeolite structures (that distinct for chemical composition of the framework). Moreover, it permits to conclude that transition metal-containing membranes adsorb a higher percentage of the enzyme with respect to no-exchanged membranes and that, for all materials synthesized, the amount of catalase adsorbed onto the zeolite crystals and membranes increases with the temperature.

Keywords Catalase immobilization, Environmental application, Hydrothermal synthesis, Zeolite membranes.

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Market of bananas in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 2002 to 2017

Abstract The banana market has grown considerably in recent years due to the increase in the supply of this fruit, both in quantity, quality and punctuality of the daily / weekly offer in the gondolas of hortifrúti retail establishments. Also, trade has grown due to increased consumer demand for this product, because of the change in people’s behavior for better quality foods, such as bananas. This work was carried out in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2002 to 2017, making monthly collections in hortifrúti retail establishments, using spreadsheets to record the quantities sold, gondola losses with information from the sector managers and per capita consumption made through the ratio of the quantity sold and the number of inhabitants of the city at each stage of the research, in order to know the size of the banana market in this city.

Keywords Banana, Per capita consumption, Marketplace, Losses.

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A mitochondrial DNA SNP is maternally inherited in hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) and segregates varieties of the renowned Brewer’s Gold female lineage from the others

Abstract The integration of molecular biology concepts and techniques in cultivated plant breeding programs allows defining more accurately the parents involved in crosses. The analysis of the DNA polymorphism in existing hop cultivars or wild types selected to generate new potent varieties is commonly used. Ribosomal DNA RFLP was the first to be studied in the middle of the 1990’s and differentiated at least European from North American cultivated hops. The EcoRI rDNA RFLP has been established here for a selection of 31 H. lupulus plants, 17 of which are cultivars and the remaining 14 include wild types and other genotypes used for breeding. The sequence of the Magnum variety rDNA EcoRI fragment (4,957 bp) covering the intergenic spacer and corresponding to its North American heritage has been determined. As mitochondria are known to play a role in the biosynthesis of the valuable plant secondary metabolites, specially those based on isopentenyl pyrophosphate, the search for mtDNA polymorphism allowing a possible distinction among hops was engaged. After having established the 14,472 bp sequence of mtDNA encompassing the ATP synthase alpha subunit (509 aa), a 560 bp region 5’ upstream of this gene allowed to identify a single nucleotide polymorphism. This SNP appeared to be maternally inherited in the lineage of Brewer’s Gold, often used in crosses for its bittering properties. This work may stimulate researchers to explore further on the role of mitochondria in the biosynthesis of metabolites, mainly but not only isoprenoids, that make Humulus lupulus so interesting.

Keywords Cannabaceae, Cannabis sativa, Medicinal plant, Mitochondria, Terpenes.

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In vitro Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some New Fungicides in the Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Tobacco Seedlings

Abstract The damping off disease of tobacco seedlings caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes a huge damage. The limited numbers of products are used in protection from the disease, but lately new fungicides appeared on the market.

The aim of these investigations was to determine the effectiveness of new fungicides in control of this pathogen, compared with commonly used. The tests were carried out in conditions in vitro, with 8 fungicides. Two fungicides were evaluated in 2 or 3 concentrations.

All tested fungicides showed extremely high effectiveness in the control of this pathogenic fungus –the percentage of inhibition of radial growth ranges from 80, 45 to 100%.

The preparate Orvego (300 g / l ametoctradin + 225 g / l dimetomorph) is exception –it showed 48.05%.

The best effectiveness showed contact fungicides Manfil 80WP (800 g/kg mancozeb) and Enervin WG (120 g/kg ametotradin +440 g/kg metiram) as well as systemic Signum 33 WG (267 g/kg boscalid +67g/kg pyraclostrobin) and Quadris 25 SC (250 g/l azoxystrobin)with100%inhibition of pathogenʼs development.

Fungicides with such high effectiveness in control of R.solani will ensure their use in protection of tobacco seedling from the damping off disease.

Keywords active ingredient, disease, pathogen, radial development, reduction.

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Sustainability in Potato Production, According to Crop -Livestock Integration System Approach

Abstract: In the southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, there is predominance of small farms that cultivate potato and exploit and dairy farming in family business form. These firms are important for the economic activity in the region, although most pasture areas are degraded. In Potato cultivation the intensive use of the area predominates with more than one crop per year, with absence of: technology, conservation and environmental techniques and crop rotation. This predatory system has led to the degradation of soils and natural resources. The purpose of this paper was to propose and disseminate techniques for crop managing and, mainly, the adoption of the crop-livestock integration system with potato as the main crop, providing for family business rationality and sustainable exploitation of its property. These practices can improve the income producers, and ensure the permanence in their properties. The research was carried out in three municipalities in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais, prioritizing the sequence of rotational occupation and planting time of the potato: a) potato (planting in October), maize + Brachiaria grass (direct grazing and silage), millet (grazing); b) potato (February planting), oats (cutting and grazing), corn (grain); c) potato (October planting), maize; occupational sequence of crop rotation performed respectively in three municipalities. After the crops in succession, the potato planting is again restarted. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the crop-livestock integration system adds positive effects of potato production to those of livestock production, with a great synergistic effect benefiting all these operations.

Keywords: Sustainability, Potato, Crop-Livestock Integration System Integration.

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Marketing Function Development of Kopi Ser in Badung Regency

Abstract UUP Kopi SER experience difficulties to implemented government policy about marketing process Kopi SER product to customer. A low rank of financial capital, an unoptimalize production tools usage and incapable to fulfill customer needs become a dominant inhibitors factors in marketing process of Kopi SER products. These are indicates that UUP Kopi Ser has serious problems, even lead to a crisis so it’s needed some action to recover their business continuity.

Aim for this research is to make a marketing function model in business process of Kopi SER in Badung Regency, Bali Province. Methodology used in this research are to used UUP performance analysis, continued with stakeholders analysis, obstacles, needs/requirement, and the program objectives of UUP Kopi Ser marketing development using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), as a foothold to produce marketing function model in Kopi SER business process.

The research result is UUP Kopi SER performance overall is still not optimal, so needs to be improved performances. Department of Agriculture, low rank of capital financial, a clear memorandum of understanding (MoU) about price, quantity, quality and continuity, an improved of instructor capability in marketing function, and an improved marketing function in order to promote the brand image are the dominant sub-element that can influence UUP Kopi SER continuity and tenacity. Institutionally, UUP Kopi SER role should get support and strong protection from the local government, especially from Department of Agriculture, Department of Industry and Commerce and also Financial Institution as drivers. UUP Kopi SER marketing model function in business process revealed that company marketing, marketing strategy, product manajemen, product marketing and field marketing are still to developed even more.

Keywords UUP Kopi SER, marketing function model, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM).

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Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Value Added Banana Products

Abstract The present study evaluated physico-chemical and sensorial qualities of value added banana products. Unripe fruits of Cavendish variety were processed for making banana flour. Value added products like dough, chapatti and banana kheer were prepared from banana flour. Rice and basin flour were also used in chappati. Unripe banana fruit, banana flour and their products were analysed for pH, titratable acidity, moisture (%), TSS (Brix) and vitamin C. The results showed that the maximum pH (7.68) and TSS (26.30 brix) recorded from the kheer, However, Ash (0.86%) and vitamin C (18.3mg/100gm) were observed highest in chapatti prepared from banana and rice flours as compared to chappati prepared from banana flour only (12.54). Unripe banana fruits had maximum percentage of moisture (72.08%) in comparison to banana products. The minimum pH (6.79) and titratable acidity (0.02) were observed from the unripe banana fruits. While, banana flour had minimum moisture (7.49%). Minimum TSS (5.30) were recorded in chappati prepared from mixture of banana-rice flour and banana-basin flour. The results shows that processing of banana for value added products alter the physico-chemical qualities of banana.

Keywords Banana flour, chapati, milk, rice flour,Physico-chemical.

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Physico-Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Composite Bread prepared from Wheat and defatted Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Kernel Flour

Abstract This study is part of the valuation of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.). For this purpose, defatted cashew kernel flour (powder) has been incorporated into wheat flour for the production of breads. Composite flours containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of delipidated cashew kernel were analyzed for their physico-chemical and functional properties as well as the resulting loaves, for their sensory quality. The results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with cashew nuts flour increases the protein, fat, ash, fiber, energy and mineral content of wheat / cashew nut composites flours. However, this incorporation has resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate content. The study of the functional properties of composite flours showed that the substitution resulted in a significant increase (p <0.05) of the water absorption capacity (CAE) and oil (CAH) while the density decreased. Sensory tests indicated that there is a significant difference (p <0.05) between control bread and all composite breads. However, it is suggested that cashew kernel flour could be suitably incorporated into wheat flour up to a rate of 20%.

Keywords Cashew nut, wheat flour, composite bread, sensory quality, substitution.

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Induction of Systemic acquired resistance in Mungbean against Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Begomovirus by the exogenous application of Salicylic acid and Benzothiadiazole.

Abstract The diseases caused by bipartite Begomoviruses have emerged as overwhelming problem in various cropping systems of Pakistan. The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of induced resistance in mungbean to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. In this work, resistance to MYMV infection was induced in mungbean plants by activating the Salicylic acid (SA) pathway using SA and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as treatments. The resistance was characterized by evaluating symptom appearance and virus titter through ELISA. Elicitors i.e., SA and BTH were applied at different concentrations to enhance the innate resistance of mungbean by the induction of defense related compounds. All treatments were helpful in reducing plant infection but the most effective treatment was the combination of SA@5mM and BTH@150mg/L as compared to virus inoculated control. Three weeks analysis showed peak accumulation of defense related enzymatic antioxidants and phenols in the mungbean leaves treated with SA and BTH. Higher enzymatic activity was observed in elicitor treated plants followed by inoculation with MYMV. As the resistance increased due to the application of SA & BTH the enzymatic activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were also increased during second week after application of elicitors. This study revealed that SA and BTH are potential source for management of MYMV by enhancing the level of protection through induction of systemic acquired resistance.

Keywords Induced resistance, Vigna radiata, enzymatic antioxidants, PAL, SOD, and POD.

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Comparative study of Banana figs prepared from two different varieties

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the sensory and physicochemical properties of banana products .The tests were undertaken to ascertain the suitability of the solutions for preservation of sweet bananas as added-value foods and to reduce post-harvest losses. Prepared banana figs of both varieties were presented to a panel of judges for evaluation of organoleptic attributed. The maximum total soluble solids (22.84 and 12.30), Titratable acidity (0.0148 and 0.0403), non reducing sugar (11.250), Ash (1.1144 and 1.9346) were showed by variety giant in banana fig, whereas, the variety dwarf showed maximum pH, Vitamin C content, total sugar and reducing sugar. On other hand the maximum (24.48°Brix) total soluble solids was observed in banana figs prepared after 90 days. The maximum total sugar (20.36%), non-reducing sugar (14.08%) Ash (1.12%) were showed by the banana figs prepared after 90 days. Sensory evaluations of banana figs revealed that they exhibited significant difference in the score of all attributes among the two with exception of consistency .The results showed that the 90 days produced good results for frying and drying of banana figs.

Keywords Banana figs, varieties, physiochemical properties, Sensory evaluations.

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Antifungal activity of plant extracts and Silver nano particles against Citrus brown spot pathogen (Alternaria citri).

Abstract Citrus Brown spot caused by Alternaria citri. Different control strategies should be used for management of disease and for increasing potential yield of citrus. Hence in-vitro potential of Plant extract and Silver Nano particles were evaluated for control of Brown spot pathogen in Citrus mangroves of Pakistan. Four different plant extracts garlic, neem, mint and basil leaves extracts were used at concentration of 20%. 40% and 60 %. Their effect on radial mycelial growth was checked with reference to untreated or control petri plate. It was observed that almost all concentrations of plant extracts significantly reduce radial mycelia growth as compared to control. In all treatments of plant extracts it was observed that 60% concentration of neem extracts is effective with radial mycelia growth of 3.96 cm over control petri plate which is 7.73cm, garlic extract@ 60% gave least fungal mycelia growth 5.5cm followed by mint leaves @60% gave 3.16 cm radial growth and Basil leaves extract @60% reduces fungal mycelia growth upto 3.93 cm as compared to control petri plate. Nano particles were used for invitro control of brown spot pathogen .Ten different concentration of nanonparticles were used as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 ppm. The result of study revealed that by increasing concentration of nano particles inhibit mycelial growth of pathogen more significantly and 100 ppm concentration of Silver nano particles reduce fungal mycelia growth upto 2.63cm as compared to untreated petri plate fungal growth 7.23cm.

Keywords Alternaria citri, green fungicides, nano particles, plant extracts.

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