Toxicity and Effect of Cypermethrin onTotal Protein and Nucleic Acid Content in the Tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala
Abstract— Effect of cypermethrin (25%EC) on total protein and nucleic acid content in different tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala was assessed by static renewal bioassay, using different sub-lethal concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% of 96h LC50) for 5, 10 and 15 days duration. There was a gradual decrease in protein content in all the tissues under sub-lethal concentrations at all exposure periods with maximum percentage of depletion (45.26%) in muscle and minimum (35.12%) in kidney at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. DNA and RNA contents were not altered much by cypermethrin at 5th day which later gradually decreased with increased exposure period. Decrement in DNA content is less in muscle when compared to the other tissues. Maximum percentage of depletion in DNA was (17.17%) in liver and minimum (13.94%) in muscle at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. RNA content decreased significantly in liver (29.90%), muscle (25.53%), brain (23.38%), kidney (21.82%) and gill (20.34%). This decrease was comparatively higher at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. Influence of cypermethrin was found to be time and exposure dependent for both the nucleic acids in the aquaculture practices used edible fish.
Keywords— Cypermethrin, DNA, Protein, RNA, Synthetic pyrethroids, Toxicity.
Abstract— Taxus Chinensis var. mairei is a valuable plant species for timber and taxoids isolated from this species are very important compounds that are used for cancer treatment. Although chemical investigation on T. chinensis var. mairei are popular, functional identification of genes isolated from this species is rare. In this investigation, we have isolated TCAP3 gene and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissue and developmental stages through Real time-PCR; then we transformed this gene into Arabidopsis and analyzed its function. Our results demonstrated that its cDNA contains 846 bp bases (coding 197 amino acids) constituted by four typical domains, M, I, K, C with conserved motif, Phylogenetic analysis showed that TCAP3 is more ancient than angiosperm B class genes. Alignment of protein sequence demonstrated the conserved motifs, which illustrated that TCAP3 belongs to gymnosperm Gymno B class MADS-box genes with PI-derived, on C-teminal, which is similar structure to the Gymno B class MADS-box genes that they share the same B class gene specific conserved motif. Expression analysis of TCAP3 in different tissue showed that it only expression in male strobilus, not in leaf, bud and female strobilus at different developmental stages. We divided the stages according to paraffin sections of male strobilus. The results indicated that TCAP3 expresses dynamically along with the male strobilus. Heterologous expression of TCAP3 in Arabidopsis demonstrated that TCAP3 was involved in flower, especially the filaments morphological development.
Keywords— Taxus Chinensis var. Mairei; gene cloning; B-class gene; expression pattern; functional analysis.
Study of Dyeing of Cotton Fabric using Peanut Pod Natural Dyes using Al2So4 CuSo4 and FeSo4 Mordanting Agent
Abstract— The decline in the use of artificial colourants due to their toxicity in food and textile industry, put forward by international market has increased the importance of natural raw materials. From those, peanut pod (Arachis hypogaea) with solid applications is one of the most important sources of natural dyes. The major colouring component in peanut is pods, extracted from the fresh and dried peanut pod. The aim of present work is to evaluate peanut pod powder as natural textile dyestuff. The work consists of three steps, i.e. extraction, characterization and dyeing processes. The dye extraction procedure is conventional and traditional. Dyeing of cotton fabrics with the extract of peanut pod powder has been carried out and dyeing has been optimized using three mordanting agents as: Alum, Copper Sulphate and Ferrous Sulphate. Finally, dyed fabric have been subjected to different textile laboratory tests e.g., colour fastness, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness (dry and wet).
Keywords— Peanut Pod, Natural Dyes, Cotton Fabric, Mordanting Agents, Environmental Friendly.
Abstract—Sampling was done in wet and intermediate zones represented by the Walpita and Makandura research centers, respectively. Eleven land use systems were considered for the study; coconut mono culture (CM), bare land (BL) and coconut multiple cropping. Under coconut multiple cropping, nine different intercrops were selected separately for each zones. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates (n = 3). The experiment was conducted under mature baring coconut (>20 years) plantation. Soil Macrofauna was sampled using one transect with three replicates at each land use type using quadrate size (30×30cm) from 0-30 cm depth and visible organisms were handpicked and preserved in 75% alcohol. Dilute plate technique and Spread plate technique was used to determine the soil micro organisms’ density. Those techniques were used to cultivate the fungi and bacteria under and dilution level respectively.
Research identified 12 classes (Crusteacea, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Acarina, Araneida, Scopionida, Chilapoda, Diplopoda, Amphibia, Reptelia) and 14 orders (Hemiptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Thysanura, Hymenoptera, Lepidotera, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, Phasmida, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Siphonaptera, Thysanoptera) of soil organisms. Class insecta shows the high diversity with 14 orders. Colony forming unit (CFU) value of bacteria was higher than that of the fungi value. Findings of intermediate and wet zones’ studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may have high diversity, abundance and functional role of soil organisms. Both zones studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may increase soil moisture factor, respiration rate, biomass carbon content, organic carbon percentage, total nitrogen content, organic matter content and C:N ratio in 0-30cm depth other than the coconut monoculture systems. Overall data of two different zones indicated a significant positive correlation of soil organism diversity, abundance and their functional role with cropping systems. Those data can be used as a reliable basic bio indicator for payments for ecosystem services (PES). It supports to valorize the economic value of the ecological services returned by soil organisms.
Keywords—Soil organisms, diversity, abundance, multiple cropping systems, eco system services, payments for ecosystem services, soil ecology.
Enterocin 55 produced by non rabbit-derived strain Enterococcus faecium EF55 in relation with microbiota and selected parameters in broiler rabbits
Abstract— Ent55 is produced by poultry strain Enterococcus faecium EF55. It is substance which can be allotted to Class II enterocins; thermo-stable, small peptide. Because producer strain has shown beneficial effect in poultry and broiler rabbits as well, we decided to apply Ent55 in broiler rabbit husbandry. Ent55 showed antimicrobial activity in broiler rabbits by reduction of staphylococci, Clostridiae, pseudomonads and coliforms. Its beneficial effect was demonstrated by stimulation of phagocytic activity as well as by reduction of Eimeria spp. oocysts. GPx values were lower; it means, no oxidative stress was evoked. Moreover, it has not negative influence on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Our results indicated that enterocin produced by not-autochtonous strain can also have protective and beneficial effect in broiler rabbits.
Keywords— Enterocin, effect, microbiota, immunity, rabbit.
Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides in the Ground Water of the Shallow Aquifer Systems in Jericho and Jeftlik areas/ Lower Jordan Valley, Occupied Palestinian Territories
Abstract— One of the most important pollutants that may reach the groundwater through agricultural return flow combined with abuse and ignorance is pesticides. This study focuses on the examination of the concentration of three pesticides: Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin, all of which have been used in large quantities in the Lower Jordan Valley (LJV) for the last three decades. Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from water boreholes where water is abstracted from two phreatic aquifer systems which are the Plio-Plistocene aquifer system in Jericho and Lower Al Jeftlik areas and the Eocene carbonate aquifer system in the Middle of Al Jeftlik. The depth of the boreholes in both aquifer system ranges between 80 and 120 m. Water samples were analyzed for Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin using the HPLC-UV method. These samples represent two main agricultural locations (Jericho, and the Al Jeftlik). Of the 25 wells sampled, Abamectin was detected in 11 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.24 ppb and 81.71ppb. Imidacloprid was detected in 24 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.60ppb and 325.0ppb. Finally, ß-Cyfluthrin was detected in 7 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.10 and 24.46ppb.
Aquifer lithology, groundwater flow directions, type of agricultural activity are major factors in controlling pesticide concentrations in groundwater. The highest values were measured where the aquifer consists of gravel and sand sediments, combined with intensive agricultural activities, followed by sand-silt aquifer. The lowest concentrations were found in boreholes where carbonate aquifer is the main source of water which indicates that other source of water flow into the system. The results of this study demonstrate that these pesticides are used heavily and in an improper way in the lower Jordan Valley, increasing the risk of adverse environmental and public health effects. Much attention should be given to addressing the potential problem of environmental and groundwater contamination by these pesticides.
Keywords— Shallow Aquifer, Jericho area, Pesticide, Abamectin, Imidacloprid, ß-Cyfluthrin, Jericho.
Effects of Feeding Whole Cottonseed, Cotton Seed Cake and Guizotia abyssinica (Noug seed) cake on Blood Serum Parameters of Growing Arsi- Bale Male Goats
Abstract— The present study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding whole cotton seed, of Gossipium hirustum spp (WCS), cottonseed cake (CSC) and noug seed cake (NSC) on blood serum parameters of growing male goats. Twenty four Arsi-Bale growing male goats of 6-12 months of age were assigned at random to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were; (T1) local grass hay only (control), (T2) control +20% WCS, (T3) control+30% CSC all amount on total daily DMI basis and (T4) control + recommended level noug seed cake(50% wheat bran (WB) and 49% NSC). Blood samples were collected in 10ml vactainer tube by jugular vein puncture every 30, 60 and 90 days of the experimental days and were allowed to clot at room temperature and centrifuged for 15minutesat 3000 rpm. The separated serum samples were stored in a deep freezer at -20oC until they were analyzed. Te samples were analyzed for serum parameters: albumin, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine and alkaline phosphate Significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments was observed in the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphate and albumin. Higher levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were observed for T4 while higher alkaline phosphate was observed for T3 and higher albumin was observed for T2. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference between treatments were observed in the levels of total serum protein and glucose. Moreover, no visible clinical sign of gossypol toxicity was observed on the experimental goats fed WCS and CSC during the 90 days of the experimental period. Hence, it was concluded that supplementation of growing male goat diets with recommended levels of NSC,20 and 30% WCS and CSC respectively have no adverse effect on blood serum parameters of growing male goats.
Keywords— blood serum parameters, cotton seed cake, goats, noug seed cake, whole cottonseed.
Abstract— Lignocellulosic wastes from agro-industry are usually discarded, despite their technical potential for use to reinforce composites. Because of increasing environmental concerns, scientific interest is growing to characterize fiber residues from peach palm tree trunks, papaya tree trunks and sponge gourds. The peach palm residues were obtained from the portion of the trunk not suitable for hearts of palm, while the papaya trunk residues were obtained from trees cut down after three years of fruit production and the sponge gourd waste material came from leftover gourds not suitable for making bath sponges. The materials were characterized regarding moisture content, density, ash content, lignin and holocellulose content, and soluble content, and were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, mechanic property and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The moisture, extractives and ash contents of the papaya pseudsterm and peach palm wastes were very near each other. The sponge gourd fibers had the highest concentrations of α-cellulose and hemicellulose and lowest levels of extractable soluble, and ash. The characterization results show that these waste materials are comparable with other agro-industrial residues described in the literature for use in making composites, so they have good potential for use as polymer reinforcement.
Keywords— lignocellulosic fibers, peach palm tree, papaya pseudstem, sponge gourd.