IJOER: February 2017

Engineering journal had published its volume-3, issue-2, February 2017 Issue with AD Publications

Inter-slice contour interpolation from 2D cross-sectional medical images via piecewise trend curve analysis

AbstractThe 3D surface reconstruction from 2D cross-sections is a significant task, especially in the medical diagnosis. Therefore interpolation methods are necessary but difficult due to the 3D anisotropy between an intra-slice and inter-slice resolution. However, most of the existing literatures are inefficient to ensure the accuracy and robustness of results because of the noises or segmentation errors on the contour of slices. Moreover, the varying trend of the contour curves along the interpolation direction (z-axis), which is a very important factor in object surface description, is not well referred due to the difficulty on its representation in existing methods. In this work, we study an inter-slice interpolation method with a piecewise trend curve analysis to achieve the missing slices employing the underlying piecewise trend curve estimation of slices. The efficiency of our framework is demonstrated by experimental results on the simulated objects and real tumors. According the experimental validation, the method can get better reconstruction performance, especially in the case of objects with complex surface.

Keywords Interpolatory contour, adaptive multi-curves approximation, underlying piecewise trend, medical image.

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Natural User Interface for 3D Voxel-based Modeling

Abstract In this study, we propose an interaction method for 3D voxel based modeling in immersive virtual environments. We assumed that all tasks must be NUI (Natural User Interface) based interactions, rather than using conventional input devices like keyboard or mouse. To see the usefulness of our proposed interaction methods, we have created an immersive virtual reality application that can interact with three-dimensional objects using only hands and arms. The modeling process requires interactions for two types of tasks. One group is the menu selection and control tasks, and the other is the manipulation tasks for voxels. We have defined motion interactions that are appropriate for each task so that all actions are possible only with hands and arms. In order to confirm how effective the proposed methods are, we have produced various shapes of 3d objects. Based on the results, we investigated the possibility of NUI based interactions proposed in this study.

Keywords NUI (Natural User Interface), HMD (Head Mounted Display), immersive, 3d modeling.

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2.5D X-Clock Tree Synthesis Based on Voltage-Island Combination for Reducing Power and Delay

Abstract The paper presents an algorithm of 2.5D X-clock tree synthesis based on the stacked-layer combination of voltage islands for reducing both power consumption and clock delay. Double via insertion is also considered for via-effect avoidance and reliability. The algorithm can reduces the complexity of 3D clock tree construction of a stacked-layer chip. A clock network is first partitioned into the number of voltage islands distributed on each layer, such as L-type and T-type, and the X-clock tree is constructed for each voltage island. Then, we integrate these X-clock trees based on a well-defined connection each layer by inserting level shifters and TSVs for minimizing the power with the best trade off in power and delay. Experimental results show that our approach can save up to 10.94% and 35.185% effectively on average in power and delay, respectively.

Keywords X-clock tree, stacked layer, voltage island, level shifter, double via, clock delay, power consumption.

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Experimental Studies of Utilization of Biogas with Biodiesel in Diesel Engine Generator for Electricity Generation

Abstract With the rising population worldwide, energy consumption has been increased in the last few decades. To fulfill this energy consumption demand more inclination is towards conventional coal or thermal sources of energy generation. With their continuous use they will not be available in future for long time. In order to meet this increasing energy demand and supply of fuel, renewable energy sources are found to be the best alternatives. The biogas is one of the sources of renewable energy, consisting of approximately 55-60 % of methane which can be burned to produce heat and electricity, and many other operations using an internal combustion engine, for the conversion of biogas into both electricity and heat. The harmful emissions from burning of methane are reduced and keep the environment clean. In this paper performance and emission characteristics of IC engine using blends of rice bran oil and its bio-diesel with biogas as fuel in normal mode of operation under different engine test conditions are studied and discussed.

Keywords Biogas, Biodiesel, Electrical power, Rice bran oil.

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A Survey of Underlying Base Technologies for Virtual Experience

Abstract This paper is a survey of virtual experience provided by virtual reality systems. The author investigated the various underlying base technologies that enable virtual experience and the research results about the virtual experience systems using these technologies. The underlying base technologies that enable virtual experience is divided into recognition, generation, and expression technology. The author analyzed the three types of technologies in more detail and examined the state of the technical elements.

Keywords Virtual Reality, Virtual Experience.

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Alternative forms of banana marketing improve quality and reduce losses

Abstract At the moment a crescent is verified disputes of the consumers for foods of better quality and presentation forms. That interest has been contributing to the development of new techniques to prolong the useful life of the products, besides improving the presentation and the practicality during the commercialization, transport and consumption. However, the shelf life and losses of the bananas ‘Nanicão’ and ‘Prata anã’ under different presentation forms were evaluated in laboratory conditions of grocery store of the city of Lavras, MG, Brazil.

Keywords longevity, Musa spp, packaging, post-harvest, quality.

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Knowing the unknowable unknowns: subpixel anomalous source detection in hyperspectral imagery

Abstract––A novel and computationally efficient algorithm for autonomous detection and localization of anomalies in hyperspectral imagery is presented. Anomaly refers to any object whose spectral radiance does not comport with that of its immediate neighborhood. It is assumed that the spatial extent of the anomaly is smaller than a sensor detector footprint, and that it is entirely confined to a single image pixel. The technique developed here is an unsupervised learning algorithm that examines each pixel in the context of its immediate neighborhood without any a priori knowledge about the spatial and spectral characteristics of the expected background or potential anomalies. The image representing each of the spectral bands of the hyperspectral image under consideration is independently converted to a two-dimensional binary anomaly map, which lends itself to straightforward parallelization of the computational process. The composite anomaly map is then obtained by adding the entire set of anomaly maps to which a threshold is applied and detection decisions are subsequently made. The results of the application of the algorithm to hyperspectral cubes obtained from the AVIRIS data and color RGB images are presented. It is shown that the algorithm provides a robust anomaly detection methodology with very-low computational overhead. This new algorithm has demonstrated computational efficiency of over three orders of magnitude better than the Boeing computationally-enhanced version of the N-FINDR. Unlike the N-FINDR, real-time application of the new anomalous source detection algorithm appears practicable.

Keywords–– multispectral imaging, hyperspectral imaging, image recognition, algorithms, filters, passive remote sensing.

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Applications of Vanillin Schiff Base ligands and their complexes: A Review

Abstract Vanillin which is a naturally occurring food component found in plants is used for the manufacture of Schiff base chelates. The chelates and complexes find applications as anti mutagen, anticlastogen, DNA PK inhibitor, anticarcinogen, inhibitor of non-homogenous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) etc. They form complexes with a wide variety of metals including rare earths. They are incorporated in polymer matrix for various applications. This paper reviews the vanillin Schiff base chelates their complexes and their applications.

Keywords Vanillin, Schiff base, Chelates, complexes.

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